The term acute mediastinitis describes a number of clinical conditions, usually secondary to diseases of other aetiology with which they tend to share the severity of the clinical picture. In these situations even a timely diagnosis and adequate therapeutic management are not always enough to ensure healing. Over the period 1987-2002 15 patients with acute mediastinitis were observed (8 male, 7 female), aged from 22 to 90 years (mean age: 57.9), distributed as follows: descending necrotising mediastinitis, 4 cases; iatrogenic oesophageal rupture, 2 cases; iatrogenic tracheal rupture, 3 cases; oesophageal perforation (foreign body), 4 cases; Boerhaave's syndrome, 1 case; oesophageal perforation (lye ingestion), 1 case. All patients except one--managed medically--were submitted to mediastinal drainage (surgical or by mediastinoscopy), combined with cervical debridement and drainage in cases of descending necrotising mediastinitis, alimentary tract diversion (cervical oesophagostomy + feeding jejunostomy + gastric decompression) in cases of large oesophageal lesions or if the lesion occurred more than 24 hours before observation, and uni- or bilateral tube thoracostomy. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy was always administered, initially choosing broad-spectrum medications, and subsequently adjusting according to bacterial cultures. Four patients died. In 4 cases (2 descending necrotising mediastinitis, 2 acute mediastinitis secondary to oesophageal perforation) repeated interventions were necessary in order to drain pleural or mediastinal effusions. Acute mediastinitis remains a serious clinical entity, the outlook of which is often poor. Factors influencing outcome are the patient's age and general condition (adequate immune response), a timely diagnosis, preoperative localisation of effusions, an aggressive therapeutic approach including drainage of infection sites in the mediastinum, neck and/or pleural cavities, alimentary tract diversion in cases of oesophageal lesions observed late, adequate antibiotic therapy, and nutritional support (total parenteral/enteral nutrition).

Mediastinite acuta: inquadramento clinico e revisione della casistica

RAGUSA, Mark;AVENIA, Nicola;PUMA, Francesco;DADDI, Giuliano
2003

Abstract

The term acute mediastinitis describes a number of clinical conditions, usually secondary to diseases of other aetiology with which they tend to share the severity of the clinical picture. In these situations even a timely diagnosis and adequate therapeutic management are not always enough to ensure healing. Over the period 1987-2002 15 patients with acute mediastinitis were observed (8 male, 7 female), aged from 22 to 90 years (mean age: 57.9), distributed as follows: descending necrotising mediastinitis, 4 cases; iatrogenic oesophageal rupture, 2 cases; iatrogenic tracheal rupture, 3 cases; oesophageal perforation (foreign body), 4 cases; Boerhaave's syndrome, 1 case; oesophageal perforation (lye ingestion), 1 case. All patients except one--managed medically--were submitted to mediastinal drainage (surgical or by mediastinoscopy), combined with cervical debridement and drainage in cases of descending necrotising mediastinitis, alimentary tract diversion (cervical oesophagostomy + feeding jejunostomy + gastric decompression) in cases of large oesophageal lesions or if the lesion occurred more than 24 hours before observation, and uni- or bilateral tube thoracostomy. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy was always administered, initially choosing broad-spectrum medications, and subsequently adjusting according to bacterial cultures. Four patients died. In 4 cases (2 descending necrotising mediastinitis, 2 acute mediastinitis secondary to oesophageal perforation) repeated interventions were necessary in order to drain pleural or mediastinal effusions. Acute mediastinitis remains a serious clinical entity, the outlook of which is often poor. Factors influencing outcome are the patient's age and general condition (adequate immune response), a timely diagnosis, preoperative localisation of effusions, an aggressive therapeutic approach including drainage of infection sites in the mediastinum, neck and/or pleural cavities, alimentary tract diversion in cases of oesophageal lesions observed late, adequate antibiotic therapy, and nutritional support (total parenteral/enteral nutrition).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/28130
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