Minipuberty consists of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during the neonatal period, resulting in high gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, and occurs mainly in the first 3-6 months of life in both sexes. The rise in the levels of these hormones allows for the maturation of the sexual organs. In boys, the peak testosterone level is associated with penile and testicular growth and the proliferation of gonadic cells. In girls, the oestradiol levels stimulate breast tissue, but exhibit considerable fluctuations that probably reflect the cycles of maturation and atrophy of the ovarian follicles. Minipuberty allows for the development of the genital organs and creates the basis for future fertility, but further studies are necessary to understand its exact role, especially in girls. Nevertheless, no scientific study has yet elucidated how the HPG axis turns itself offand remains dormant until puberty. Additional future studies may identify clinical implications of minipuberty in selected cohorts of patients, such as premature and small for gestational age infants. Finally, minipuberty provides a fundamental 6-month window of the possibility of making early diagnoses in patients with suspected sexual reproductive disorders to enable the prompt initiation of treatment rather than delaying treatment until pubertal failure.

Up-To-Date Review About Minipuberty and Overview on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Activation in Fetal and Neonatal Life

Lanciotti L;Cofini M;Leonardi A;Penta L;Esposito S
2018

Abstract

Minipuberty consists of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during the neonatal period, resulting in high gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, and occurs mainly in the first 3-6 months of life in both sexes. The rise in the levels of these hormones allows for the maturation of the sexual organs. In boys, the peak testosterone level is associated with penile and testicular growth and the proliferation of gonadic cells. In girls, the oestradiol levels stimulate breast tissue, but exhibit considerable fluctuations that probably reflect the cycles of maturation and atrophy of the ovarian follicles. Minipuberty allows for the development of the genital organs and creates the basis for future fertility, but further studies are necessary to understand its exact role, especially in girls. Nevertheless, no scientific study has yet elucidated how the HPG axis turns itself offand remains dormant until puberty. Additional future studies may identify clinical implications of minipuberty in selected cohorts of patients, such as premature and small for gestational age infants. Finally, minipuberty provides a fundamental 6-month window of the possibility of making early diagnoses in patients with suspected sexual reproductive disorders to enable the prompt initiation of treatment rather than delaying treatment until pubertal failure.
2018
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1434233
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