Glutathione is considered the major non-protein low molecular weight modulator of redox processes and the most important thiol reducing agent of the cell. The biosynthesis of glutathione occurs in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, but this tripeptide is also present in the most important cellular districts, such as mitochondria, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum, thus playing a central role in several metabolic pathways and cytoprotection mechanisms. Indeed, glutathione is involved in the modulation of various cellular processes and, not by chance, it is a ubiquitous determinant for redox signaling, xenobiotic detoxification, and regulation of cell cycle and death programs. The balance between its concentration and redox state is due to a complex series of interactions between biosynthesis, utilization, degradation, and transport. All these factors are of great importance to understand the significance of cellular redox balance and its relationship with physiological responses and pathological conditions. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on glutathione cellular compartmentalization. Information on its subcellular distribution provides a deeper understanding of glutathione-dependent processes and reflects the importance of compartmentalization in the regulation of specific cellular pathways. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018.

Glutathione compartmentalization and its role in glutathionylation and other regulatory processes of cellular pathways

Bartolini, Desirée;Torquato, Pierangelo;Galli, Francesco;
2018

Abstract

Glutathione is considered the major non-protein low molecular weight modulator of redox processes and the most important thiol reducing agent of the cell. The biosynthesis of glutathione occurs in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, but this tripeptide is also present in the most important cellular districts, such as mitochondria, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum, thus playing a central role in several metabolic pathways and cytoprotection mechanisms. Indeed, glutathione is involved in the modulation of various cellular processes and, not by chance, it is a ubiquitous determinant for redox signaling, xenobiotic detoxification, and regulation of cell cycle and death programs. The balance between its concentration and redox state is due to a complex series of interactions between biosynthesis, utilization, degradation, and transport. All these factors are of great importance to understand the significance of cellular redox balance and its relationship with physiological responses and pathological conditions. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on glutathione cellular compartmentalization. Information on its subcellular distribution provides a deeper understanding of glutathione-dependent processes and reflects the importance of compartmentalization in the regulation of specific cellular pathways. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018.
2018
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1445751
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