Fusarium mycotoxins commonly contaminate agricultural products resulting in a serious threat to both animal and human health. The co-occurrence of different mycotoxins in the same cereal field is very common, so the risks as well as the functional and ecological effects of mycotoxins cannot always be predicted by focusing only on the effect of the single contaminants. Enniatins (ENNs) are among the most frequently detected emerging mycotoxins, while deoxynivalenol (DON) is probably the most common contaminant of cereal grains worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the simultaneous exposure to these mycotoxins, with emphasis on the combined effects in multiple organisms. Our literature analysis shows that just a few studies on ENN-DON toxicity are available, suggesting the complexity of mycotoxin interactions, which include synergistic, antagonistic, and additive effects. Both ENNs and DON modulate drug efflux transporters, therefore this specific ability deserves to be explored to better understand their complex biological role. Additionally, future studies should investigate the interaction mechanisms of mycotoxin co-occurrence on different model organisms, using concentrations closer to real exposures.
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