Spasticity is one of the most common symptoms pre- sented by neurologic patients. Apart from surgical management, drug therapy is an important treatment of children suffering from spasticity. In this review, recent advances in the pharmacologic armamentarium are reported in detail. In particular, there are oral medications (benzodiazepines, baclofen, dantrolene so- dium, alpha 2 adrenergic agonists) and parenteral medications (botulinum toxin type A and B, alcohol). Moreover, there is also baclofen that can be adminis- tered intrathecally. There are some reports supporting the use of intramuscular alcohol (45% and/or 5-7% phenol) to reduce spasticity without the loss of volun- tary movement or loss of sensation. Among these drugs, intrathecal baclofen is one of the most effective substances that can reduce spasticity significantly in the upper and lower extremities. Finally, the effective- ness of therapy with botulinum toxin type A in the management of spasticity is analyzed. Botulinum toxin type A reduces hypertonia in the injected muscles for a period of 2 to 4 months without important side effects. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of available oral and parenteral drugs for treatment of spasticity in cerebral palsy and to outline indications and contraindications.

Pharmacotherapy of Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy

VERROTTI DI PIANELLA, ALBERTO;
2006

Abstract

Spasticity is one of the most common symptoms pre- sented by neurologic patients. Apart from surgical management, drug therapy is an important treatment of children suffering from spasticity. In this review, recent advances in the pharmacologic armamentarium are reported in detail. In particular, there are oral medications (benzodiazepines, baclofen, dantrolene so- dium, alpha 2 adrenergic agonists) and parenteral medications (botulinum toxin type A and B, alcohol). Moreover, there is also baclofen that can be adminis- tered intrathecally. There are some reports supporting the use of intramuscular alcohol (45% and/or 5-7% phenol) to reduce spasticity without the loss of volun- tary movement or loss of sensation. Among these drugs, intrathecal baclofen is one of the most effective substances that can reduce spasticity significantly in the upper and lower extremities. Finally, the effective- ness of therapy with botulinum toxin type A in the management of spasticity is analyzed. Botulinum toxin type A reduces hypertonia in the injected muscles for a period of 2 to 4 months without important side effects. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of available oral and parenteral drugs for treatment of spasticity in cerebral palsy and to outline indications and contraindications.
2006
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1230011
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