The evolutionary process has conferred a dual - enzymatic and signaling - function on the ancestral metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which has long been known for converting the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) into neuroactive and immunoactive catabolites (kynurenines). In addition to TRP catabolic activity, phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, present in the IDO1 protein, act as docking sites for different molecular partners, which activate positive (transcriptional) or negative (post-translational) modulation of IDO1 protein. The ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to Ido1 transcription, and it can be operated by both exogenous and endogenous ligands, including l-kynurenine itself, the first byproduct of TRP catabolism. Ligand-bound AhR is also a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for regulatory proteolysis of different target proteins. Because IDO1 half-life is controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, we here discuss the possibility that AhR, in addition to enhancing Ido1 transcription, contributes to IDO1 regulation by a non-genomic mechanism affecting the protein's half-life.

AhR-Mediated, Non-Genomic Modulation of IDO1 Function

PALLOTTA, MARIA TERESA;FALLARINO, Francesca;MATINO, DAVIDE;MACCHIARULO, Antonio;ORABONA, Ciriana
2014-01-01

Abstract

The evolutionary process has conferred a dual - enzymatic and signaling - function on the ancestral metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which has long been known for converting the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) into neuroactive and immunoactive catabolites (kynurenines). In addition to TRP catabolic activity, phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, present in the IDO1 protein, act as docking sites for different molecular partners, which activate positive (transcriptional) or negative (post-translational) modulation of IDO1 protein. The ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to Ido1 transcription, and it can be operated by both exogenous and endogenous ligands, including l-kynurenine itself, the first byproduct of TRP catabolism. Ligand-bound AhR is also a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for regulatory proteolysis of different target proteins. Because IDO1 half-life is controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, we here discuss the possibility that AhR, in addition to enhancing Ido1 transcription, contributes to IDO1 regulation by a non-genomic mechanism affecting the protein's half-life.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1341909
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 19
  • Scopus 35
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 31
social impact