OBJECTIVES: The size of the pulmonary veins (PVs) and pulmonary arteries (PAs) changes in response to hemodynamic alterations caused by physiological events and disease. We sought to create standardized echocardiographic methods for imaging the right ostium of the pulmonary veins (RPVs) and the right pulmonary artery (RPA) using specific landmarks and timing to quantify vessel diameters and phasic changes during the cardiac cycle. ANIMALS: Fifty client-owned healthy dogs prospectively recruited. METHODS: M-mode and 2-dimensional images were obtained from modified right parasternal long and short axis views. Right ostium of the pulmonary veins and RPA measurements were timed with electrical [peak of the QRS complex (RPVQRS and RPAQRS) and end of T wave (RPVT and RPAT)] or mechanical events [RPV and RPA vessels at their respective maximal (RPVMAX; RPAMAX) and minimal (RPVMIN; RPAMIN) diameters]. Right ostium of the pulmonary veins and RPA measurements were also indexed to the aorta. RESULTS: In normal dogs regardless of the echocardiographic view or time in the cardiac cycle, the RPV/RPA ratio approximated 1.0. Mechanically timed fractional changes (distensibility indices) in RPV and RPA diameters did not differ (p=0.99; 36.9% and 36.8%, respectively). ECG-timed fractional changes (distensibility indices) in RPV and RPA diameter were at least 50% smaller than mechanically timed changes (p<0.05). RPV:Ao and RPA:Ao ranged between 0.3 and 0.6, with lower values obtained in diastole and larger values in systole (p<0.0001). Multiple positive and negative deflections were identified on the RPV and RPA M-mode tracings. CONCLUSION: This study provides detailed methodology and 2D and M-mode reference intervals for the RPV and RPA dimensions and the phasic changes during the cardiac cycle of the dog using echocardiography.

Canine pulmonary vein-to-pulmonary artery ratio: echocardiographic technique and reference intervals

BIRETTONI, Francesco;CAIVANO, DOMENICO;PATATA, VALENTINA;PORCIELLO, Francesco
2016

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The size of the pulmonary veins (PVs) and pulmonary arteries (PAs) changes in response to hemodynamic alterations caused by physiological events and disease. We sought to create standardized echocardiographic methods for imaging the right ostium of the pulmonary veins (RPVs) and the right pulmonary artery (RPA) using specific landmarks and timing to quantify vessel diameters and phasic changes during the cardiac cycle. ANIMALS: Fifty client-owned healthy dogs prospectively recruited. METHODS: M-mode and 2-dimensional images were obtained from modified right parasternal long and short axis views. Right ostium of the pulmonary veins and RPA measurements were timed with electrical [peak of the QRS complex (RPVQRS and RPAQRS) and end of T wave (RPVT and RPAT)] or mechanical events [RPV and RPA vessels at their respective maximal (RPVMAX; RPAMAX) and minimal (RPVMIN; RPAMIN) diameters]. Right ostium of the pulmonary veins and RPA measurements were also indexed to the aorta. RESULTS: In normal dogs regardless of the echocardiographic view or time in the cardiac cycle, the RPV/RPA ratio approximated 1.0. Mechanically timed fractional changes (distensibility indices) in RPV and RPA diameters did not differ (p=0.99; 36.9% and 36.8%, respectively). ECG-timed fractional changes (distensibility indices) in RPV and RPA diameter were at least 50% smaller than mechanically timed changes (p<0.05). RPV:Ao and RPA:Ao ranged between 0.3 and 0.6, with lower values obtained in diastole and larger values in systole (p<0.0001). Multiple positive and negative deflections were identified on the RPV and RPA M-mode tracings. CONCLUSION: This study provides detailed methodology and 2D and M-mode reference intervals for the RPV and RPA dimensions and the phasic changes during the cardiac cycle of the dog using echocardiography.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1393309
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