The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) and amphotericin B (AMB) on Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 and Prototheca blaschkeae isolates recovered from dairy herds of Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Poland. The combination of IPBC with AMB on Prototheca isolates and toxicity of IPBC to the bovine mammary epithelial cells were also evaluated. The in vitro activity of IPBC and AMB against 96 isolates of P. zopfii genotype 2 and 42 isolates of P. blaschkeae was performed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum algicidal concentrations (MAC) of IPBC and AMB were determined. To determine any synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect of the combination of IPBC and AMB, 2-dimensional checkerboard combination tests were also performed to calculate fractional inhibitory concentrations. Cytotoxicity analysis of IPBC to the bovine mammary epithelial cell line was performed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol-2yl)-2,5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The MIC for 50 and 90% of isolates (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) for IPBC were 4 and 8 mg/L versus 0.5 and 1 mg/L for AMB, respectively. The MIC profiles differed between P. zopfii genotype 2 and P. blaschkeae, with the latter species being more susceptible to both compounds. The MIC50 and MIC90 of IPBC were 4 and 8 mg/L for P. zopfii genotype 2 and 1 and 2 mg/L for P. blaschkeae, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of AMB were both 1 mg/L for P. zopfii genotype 2 and 0.25 and 1 mg/L for P. blaschkeae, respectively. Both IPBC and AMB exhibited the ability to kill Prototheca spp. The MAC for 90% of isolates of IPBC was twice the MIC90, whereas an 8-fold increase of the MIC90 was algicidal in the case of AMB. Overall, the combined use of IPBC and AMB exhibited an increased algicidal effect, albeit the fractional inhibitory concentration index showed synergistic activity only against 3 P. zopfii genotype 2 isolates. For all the remaining isolates (87.5%), this combination produced only an additive effect. The MTT assay results showed both IPBC and AMB, at the concentrations employed in the study, to be nontoxic to the epithelial mammary gland cells (cell viability >90%). Notably, only IPBC at the highest concentration (i.e., 8 mg/L) exerted a slight cytotoxic effect on the cell line tested (mean cell viability: 88.54 ± 3.88 and 90.66 ± 3.0, after 2 and 4 h of MTT treatment, respectively). The anti-Prototheca activity of IPBC was here demonstrated for the first time. In addition, the combined use of IPBC with AMB enhanced each other’s effect, creating an additive rather than synergistic interaction. Both agents, used at concentrations corresponding to MIC values against Prototheca spp., showed no toxic effect for the mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, IPBC, used either alone or in combination with AMB, can be considered a promising option in the treatment armamentarium for protothecal mastitis in dairy cows.

A comparative study of the in vitro activity of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and amphotericin B against Prototheca spp. isolates from European dairy herds

Di Mauro, S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Cambiotti, V.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Turchetti, B.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Manuali, E.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Buzzini, P.
2017

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) and amphotericin B (AMB) on Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 and Prototheca blaschkeae isolates recovered from dairy herds of Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Poland. The combination of IPBC with AMB on Prototheca isolates and toxicity of IPBC to the bovine mammary epithelial cells were also evaluated. The in vitro activity of IPBC and AMB against 96 isolates of P. zopfii genotype 2 and 42 isolates of P. blaschkeae was performed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum algicidal concentrations (MAC) of IPBC and AMB were determined. To determine any synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect of the combination of IPBC and AMB, 2-dimensional checkerboard combination tests were also performed to calculate fractional inhibitory concentrations. Cytotoxicity analysis of IPBC to the bovine mammary epithelial cell line was performed using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol-2yl)-2,5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The MIC for 50 and 90% of isolates (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) for IPBC were 4 and 8 mg/L versus 0.5 and 1 mg/L for AMB, respectively. The MIC profiles differed between P. zopfii genotype 2 and P. blaschkeae, with the latter species being more susceptible to both compounds. The MIC50 and MIC90 of IPBC were 4 and 8 mg/L for P. zopfii genotype 2 and 1 and 2 mg/L for P. blaschkeae, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of AMB were both 1 mg/L for P. zopfii genotype 2 and 0.25 and 1 mg/L for P. blaschkeae, respectively. Both IPBC and AMB exhibited the ability to kill Prototheca spp. The MAC for 90% of isolates of IPBC was twice the MIC90, whereas an 8-fold increase of the MIC90 was algicidal in the case of AMB. Overall, the combined use of IPBC and AMB exhibited an increased algicidal effect, albeit the fractional inhibitory concentration index showed synergistic activity only against 3 P. zopfii genotype 2 isolates. For all the remaining isolates (87.5%), this combination produced only an additive effect. The MTT assay results showed both IPBC and AMB, at the concentrations employed in the study, to be nontoxic to the epithelial mammary gland cells (cell viability >90%). Notably, only IPBC at the highest concentration (i.e., 8 mg/L) exerted a slight cytotoxic effect on the cell line tested (mean cell viability: 88.54 ± 3.88 and 90.66 ± 3.0, after 2 and 4 h of MTT treatment, respectively). The anti-Prototheca activity of IPBC was here demonstrated for the first time. In addition, the combined use of IPBC with AMB enhanced each other’s effect, creating an additive rather than synergistic interaction. Both agents, used at concentrations corresponding to MIC values against Prototheca spp., showed no toxic effect for the mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, IPBC, used either alone or in combination with AMB, can be considered a promising option in the treatment armamentarium for protothecal mastitis in dairy cows.
2017
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1422838
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