Bile acids are amphipathic molecules that were previously known to serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine in postprandial conditions. In the last two decades, bile acids have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating energy metabolism pathways via, amongst others, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Upon bile acid activation, FXR controls expression of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, FXR activation has been shown to limit the inflammatory response. The central role of FXR in various aspects of metabolism and inflammation makes FXR an attractive drug target for several diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cholestasis and chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver and intestine. However, most of the currently available compounds impact on all discovered FXR-mediated functions and may have, on top of beneficial effects, undesired biological actions depending on the disease. Therefore, research efforts are increasingly focused on the development of selective FXR modulators, i.e. selective bile acid receptor modulators (SBARMs), aimed at limiting the potential side-effects of conventional full FXR agonists upon chronic treatment. Here, we review the rationale for the design of SBARMs comprising dissociation between metabolic and inflammatory signaling, gene-selective and tissue-specific targeting. We discuss the potential structural mechanisms underlying the binding properties of dissociating ligands of FXR in light of ongoing efforts on the generation of dissociated ligands for other nuclear receptors, as well as their pharmacological and therapeutic potential.

Progress and challenges of selective Farnesoid X Receptor modulation

Gioiello A
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2018

Abstract

Bile acids are amphipathic molecules that were previously known to serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine in postprandial conditions. In the last two decades, bile acids have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating energy metabolism pathways via, amongst others, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Upon bile acid activation, FXR controls expression of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, FXR activation has been shown to limit the inflammatory response. The central role of FXR in various aspects of metabolism and inflammation makes FXR an attractive drug target for several diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cholestasis and chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver and intestine. However, most of the currently available compounds impact on all discovered FXR-mediated functions and may have, on top of beneficial effects, undesired biological actions depending on the disease. Therefore, research efforts are increasingly focused on the development of selective FXR modulators, i.e. selective bile acid receptor modulators (SBARMs), aimed at limiting the potential side-effects of conventional full FXR agonists upon chronic treatment. Here, we review the rationale for the design of SBARMs comprising dissociation between metabolic and inflammatory signaling, gene-selective and tissue-specific targeting. We discuss the potential structural mechanisms underlying the binding properties of dissociating ligands of FXR in light of ongoing efforts on the generation of dissociated ligands for other nuclear receptors, as well as their pharmacological and therapeutic potential.
2018
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1432987
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