Two-dimensional liquid chromatography requires orthogonal columns and/or separation principles in the first and second separation dimension. It is sometimes not straightforward to achieve. Chiral columns could expand the toolbox for 2D-LC, but are rarely exploited for this purpose, not least due to missing understanding of retention principles under non-chiral application conditions. To gain more insight, in this study Chiralpak ZWIX(+) and ZWIX(−), based on zwitterionic quinine and quinidine carbamate selectors, were carefully characterized by molecular dynamics simulations, lipophilicity/hydrophilicity measurements of selectors, pH-dependent ζ-potential determinations, and chromatographic characterization in RPLC and HILIC modes combined with unsupervised principal component analysis to extract classification of these columns in comparison to a number of commercial benchmarks (RP, HILIC and mixed-mode columns). The results showed that these chiral columns can be classified as mixed-mode chromatography phases with balanced lipophilic-hydrophilic surface character, excess of negative net charge due to sulfonic acid groups (in spite of weakly basic quinuclidine and quinoline rings), and multimodal applicability (RP, HILIC and polar organic elution modes). Orthogonality mapping in comparison to a number of modern HILIC and mixed-mode columns revealed that Poroshell HILIC-Z (with a zwitterionic ligand on 2.7 μm core-shell particles) can be beneficially combined as second dimension with the ZWIX column for comprehensive LC × LC. The online hyphenation of this 2D-LC system with complementary detection modalities including UV (DAD for chromophoric substances), charged aerosol detection (for universal detection and calibration of non-volatile analytes) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for identification) provided an advanced method for comprehensive impurity profiling, applicable for instance for amino acid pharmaceutical products.

Mixed-mode chromatography characteristics of chiralpak ZWIX(+) and ZWIX(−) and elucidation of their chromatographic orthogonality for LC × LC application

Ferri M.;Carotti A.;Sardella R.;Lammerhofer M.
2020

Abstract

Two-dimensional liquid chromatography requires orthogonal columns and/or separation principles in the first and second separation dimension. It is sometimes not straightforward to achieve. Chiral columns could expand the toolbox for 2D-LC, but are rarely exploited for this purpose, not least due to missing understanding of retention principles under non-chiral application conditions. To gain more insight, in this study Chiralpak ZWIX(+) and ZWIX(−), based on zwitterionic quinine and quinidine carbamate selectors, were carefully characterized by molecular dynamics simulations, lipophilicity/hydrophilicity measurements of selectors, pH-dependent ζ-potential determinations, and chromatographic characterization in RPLC and HILIC modes combined with unsupervised principal component analysis to extract classification of these columns in comparison to a number of commercial benchmarks (RP, HILIC and mixed-mode columns). The results showed that these chiral columns can be classified as mixed-mode chromatography phases with balanced lipophilic-hydrophilic surface character, excess of negative net charge due to sulfonic acid groups (in spite of weakly basic quinuclidine and quinoline rings), and multimodal applicability (RP, HILIC and polar organic elution modes). Orthogonality mapping in comparison to a number of modern HILIC and mixed-mode columns revealed that Poroshell HILIC-Z (with a zwitterionic ligand on 2.7 μm core-shell particles) can be beneficially combined as second dimension with the ZWIX column for comprehensive LC × LC. The online hyphenation of this 2D-LC system with complementary detection modalities including UV (DAD for chromophoric substances), charged aerosol detection (for universal detection and calibration of non-volatile analytes) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for identification) provided an advanced method for comprehensive impurity profiling, applicable for instance for amino acid pharmaceutical products.
2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1454991
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