Abstract Aims/hypothesis Experimental studies suggest that the fatty acid palmitoleate may act as an adipocyte-derived lipid hormone (or 'lipokine') to regulate systemic metabolism. We investigated the relationship of circulating palmitoleate with insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in humans. Methods Plasma NEFA concentration and composition were determined in non-diabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study cohort at baseline (n = 1234) and after a 3 year follow-up (n = 924). Glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and beta cell function were assessed during an OGTT. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M/I) and OGTT (oral glucose insulin sensitivity index [OGIS]). The liver insulin resistance index was calculated using clinical and biochemical data. Body composition including fat mass was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Results Circulating palmitoleate was proportional to fat mass (r = 0.21, p < 0.0001) and total NEFA levels (r = 0.19, p < 0.0001). It correlated with whole-body insulin sensitivity (M/I: standardised regression coefficient [std. beta] = 0.16, p < 0.0001), liver insulin resistance (std. beta = -0.14, p < 0.0001), beta cell function (potentiation: std. beta = 0.08, p = 0.045) and glucose tolerance (2 h glucose: std. beta = -0.24, p < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, adiposity and other NEFA. High palmitoleate concentrations prevented the decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with excess palmitate (p = 0.0001). In a longitudinal analysis, a positive independent relationship was observed between changes in palmitoleate and insulin sensitivity over time (std. beta = 0.07, p = 0.04). Conclusions/interpretation We demonstrated that plasma palmitoleate is an independent determinant of insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals. These results support the role of palmitoleate as a beneficial lipokine released by adipose tissue to prevent the negative effects of adiposity and excess NEFA on systemic glucose metabolism.

Circulating palmitoleic acid is an independent determinant of insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals: a longitudinal analysis

Bolli, GB;Porcellati, F;Fanelli, C;Lucidi, P;
2019

Abstract

Abstract Aims/hypothesis Experimental studies suggest that the fatty acid palmitoleate may act as an adipocyte-derived lipid hormone (or 'lipokine') to regulate systemic metabolism. We investigated the relationship of circulating palmitoleate with insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in humans. Methods Plasma NEFA concentration and composition were determined in non-diabetic individuals from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study cohort at baseline (n = 1234) and after a 3 year follow-up (n = 924). Glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and beta cell function were assessed during an OGTT. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (M/I) and OGTT (oral glucose insulin sensitivity index [OGIS]). The liver insulin resistance index was calculated using clinical and biochemical data. Body composition including fat mass was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Results Circulating palmitoleate was proportional to fat mass (r = 0.21, p < 0.0001) and total NEFA levels (r = 0.19, p < 0.0001). It correlated with whole-body insulin sensitivity (M/I: standardised regression coefficient [std. beta] = 0.16, p < 0.0001), liver insulin resistance (std. beta = -0.14, p < 0.0001), beta cell function (potentiation: std. beta = 0.08, p = 0.045) and glucose tolerance (2 h glucose: std. beta = -0.24, p < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, adiposity and other NEFA. High palmitoleate concentrations prevented the decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with excess palmitate (p = 0.0001). In a longitudinal analysis, a positive independent relationship was observed between changes in palmitoleate and insulin sensitivity over time (std. beta = 0.07, p = 0.04). Conclusions/interpretation We demonstrated that plasma palmitoleate is an independent determinant of insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals. These results support the role of palmitoleate as a beneficial lipokine released by adipose tissue to prevent the negative effects of adiposity and excess NEFA on systemic glucose metabolism.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/1455985
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 10
  • Scopus 18
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 17
social impact