OBJECTIVE: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, catabolic mechanisms have a strong negative impact on mortality and morbidity. The relationship between anabolic hormonal deficiency, thyroid function, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has still been poorly investigated. Therefore, we aimed to define the multi-hormonal deficiency prevalence in HFpEF patients and the relationships between hormonal deficiency and echocardiographic indexes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, fasting glucose, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine, insulin-like growth factor-1, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), total testosterone (only in male subjects) in 40 patients with HFpEF were evaluated. An echocardiographic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: One (2.5%) patient (2.5%) had no hormonal deficiencies; 8 (20%) patients had deficits of one hormone, 18 patients (45%) of two axes, 12 patients (30%) of three axes, and one patient (2.5%) of all four axes. Among them, 97.5% had DHEA-S deficiency, 67.5% IGF-1 deficiency, 37% testosterone deficiency, 22.5% a "Low T3 syndrome", and 20% subclinical hypothyroidism. Patients with IGF-1 deficit showed higher left atrial volume values, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP), tricuspid peak velocity (TPV), and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and TAPSE/SPAP ratio values. Patients with testosterone deficiency had higher SPAP and TPV. Patients with low T3 syndrome had higher value of right ventricular mid cavity diameter. Hormonal dysfunction was independent from the presence of comorbidities and no difference between male and female subjects was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-hormonal deficiencies are associated with right ventricular dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction in patients with HFpEF.
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