A novel methodology for the estimation of the mass flow rate delivered by each hole of a multi-hole GDI nozzle is presented and discussed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the impact force of each jet and it is able to evaluate the individual hole injection rate and injected mass using the relationship between the spray momentum flux and the mass flow rate. Three different nozzles are tested, one featuring equal hole diameters and two with differentiated hole-to-hole dimensions. Firstly, results are validated in terms of total injection rate, comparing the sum of the individual hole flow rates with the signal from a Zeuch-based flow meter. Secondly, outcomes are compared with the direct measurement of the injected quantity by means of a special device able to collect and weight the fuel delivered from each hole. Results evidence an excellent agreement in terms of mass flow rate dynamic profile as the proposed method is able to detect both opening and closure transients and the static flow rate. The proposed method proved to be able to capture the dynamic mass flow rate in transient conditions, i.e. very short injections, overcoming a limitation of the methodology proposed in a previous study. Moreover, in terms of injected mass, the results show a percentage error lower than 5% for medium and long energizing times and a maximum error of 9.5% for short injections in ballistic operating conditions.
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