Spontaneous wine fermentation is characterized by yeast population evolution, modulated by complex physical and metabolic interactions amongst various species. The contribution of any given species to the final wine character and aroma will depend on its numerical persistence during the fermentation process. Studies have primarily evaluated the effect of physical and chemical factors such as osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and nutrient availability on mono- or mixed-cultures comprising 2–3 species, but information about how interspecies ecological interactions in the wine fermentation ecosystem contribute to population dynamics remains scant. Therefore, in the current study, the effect of temperature and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the dynamics of a multi-species yeast consortium was evaluated in three different matrices including synthetic grape juice, Chenin blanc and Grechetto bianco. The population dynamics were affected by temperature and SO2, reflecting differences in stress resistance and habitat preferences of the different species and influencing the production of most volatile aroma compounds. Evidently at 15 °C and in the absence of SO2 non-Saccharomyces species were dominant, whereas at 25 °C and when 30 mg/L SO2 was added S. cerevisiae dominated. Population growth followed similar patterns in the three matrices independently of the conditions. The data show that fermentation stresses lead to an individual response of each species, but that this response is strongly influenced by the interactions between species within the ecosystem. Thus, our data suggest that ecological interactions, and not only physico-chemical conditions, are a dominant factor in determining the contribution of individual species to the outcome of the fermentation.

Ecological interactions are a primary driver of population dynamics in wine yeast microbiota during fermentation

Gianluigi Cardinali;
2020

Abstract

Spontaneous wine fermentation is characterized by yeast population evolution, modulated by complex physical and metabolic interactions amongst various species. The contribution of any given species to the final wine character and aroma will depend on its numerical persistence during the fermentation process. Studies have primarily evaluated the effect of physical and chemical factors such as osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and nutrient availability on mono- or mixed-cultures comprising 2–3 species, but information about how interspecies ecological interactions in the wine fermentation ecosystem contribute to population dynamics remains scant. Therefore, in the current study, the effect of temperature and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the dynamics of a multi-species yeast consortium was evaluated in three different matrices including synthetic grape juice, Chenin blanc and Grechetto bianco. The population dynamics were affected by temperature and SO2, reflecting differences in stress resistance and habitat preferences of the different species and influencing the production of most volatile aroma compounds. Evidently at 15 °C and in the absence of SO2 non-Saccharomyces species were dominant, whereas at 25 °C and when 30 mg/L SO2 was added S. cerevisiae dominated. Population growth followed similar patterns in the three matrices independently of the conditions. The data show that fermentation stresses lead to an individual response of each species, but that this response is strongly influenced by the interactions between species within the ecosystem. Thus, our data suggest that ecological interactions, and not only physico-chemical conditions, are a dominant factor in determining the contribution of individual species to the outcome of the fermentation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1462671
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