Drug-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (acetyl-para-aminophenol [APAP]) is the main cause of acute liver failure and liver transplantation in several Western countries. Whereas direct toxicity exerted by APAP metabolites is a key determinant for early hepatocytes injury, the recruitment of cells of innate immunity exerts a mechanistic role in disease progression, determining the clinical outcomes. GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids placed at the interface between liver sinusoidal cells and innate immunity. In this report, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that whereas Gpbar1 gene deletion worsens the severity of liver injury, its pharmacological activation by 6β-ethyl-3a,7b-dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-ol rescues mice from liver injury caused by APAP. This protective effect was supported by a robust attenuation of liver recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages and their repolarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Macrophage depletion by gadolinium chloride pretreatment abrogated disease development, whereas their reconstitution by spleen-derived macrophage transplantation restored the sensitivity to APAP in a GPBAR1-dependent manner. RNA sequencing analyses demonstrated that GPBAR1 agonism modulated the expression of multiple pathways, including the chemokine CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2. Treating wild-type mice with an anti-CCL2 mAb attenuated the severity of liver injury. We demonstrated that negative regulation of CCL2 production by GPBAR1 agonism was promoter dependent and involved FOXO1. In conclusion, we have shown that GPBAR1 is an upstream modulator of CCL2/CCR2 axis at the sinusoidal cell/macrophage interface, providing a novel target in the treatment of liver damage caused by APAP.

The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1 Modulates CCL2/CCR2 Signaling at the Liver Sinusoidal/Macrophage Interface and Reverses Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity

Biagioli, Michele;Carino, Adriana;Fiorucci, Chiara;Marchianò, Silvia;Di Giorgio, Cristina;Bordoni, Martina;Baldoni, Monia;Distrutti, Eleonora;Fiorucci, Stefano
2020

Abstract

Drug-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (acetyl-para-aminophenol [APAP]) is the main cause of acute liver failure and liver transplantation in several Western countries. Whereas direct toxicity exerted by APAP metabolites is a key determinant for early hepatocytes injury, the recruitment of cells of innate immunity exerts a mechanistic role in disease progression, determining the clinical outcomes. GPBAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids placed at the interface between liver sinusoidal cells and innate immunity. In this report, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that whereas Gpbar1 gene deletion worsens the severity of liver injury, its pharmacological activation by 6β-ethyl-3a,7b-dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-ol rescues mice from liver injury caused by APAP. This protective effect was supported by a robust attenuation of liver recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages and their repolarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Macrophage depletion by gadolinium chloride pretreatment abrogated disease development, whereas their reconstitution by spleen-derived macrophage transplantation restored the sensitivity to APAP in a GPBAR1-dependent manner. RNA sequencing analyses demonstrated that GPBAR1 agonism modulated the expression of multiple pathways, including the chemokine CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2. Treating wild-type mice with an anti-CCL2 mAb attenuated the severity of liver injury. We demonstrated that negative regulation of CCL2 production by GPBAR1 agonism was promoter dependent and involved FOXO1. In conclusion, we have shown that GPBAR1 is an upstream modulator of CCL2/CCR2 axis at the sinusoidal cell/macrophage interface, providing a novel target in the treatment of liver damage caused by APAP.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/1464724
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