Background Performing individual pharmacokinetics (PK) studies in clinical practice can be simplified by adopting population PK-based profiling on limited post-infusion samples. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of population PK in tailoring prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. Patients and Methods Individual weekly treatment plans were developed considering predicted plasma factor activity levels and patients' lifestyle. Patients were trained using a visual traffic-light scheme to help modulate their level of physical activity with respect to factor infusions timing. Annualized joint bleeding rate (ABJR), haemophilia-specific quality of life questionnaire for adults (Haemo-QoL-A) and factor utilization were measured for 12 months before and after tailoring, compared within patients and analysed separately for those previously on prophylaxis (P), situational prophylaxis (SP) or on-demand (OD). Results Sixteen patients previously on P, 10 on SP and 10 on OD were enrolled in the study. The median (lower, upper quartile) ABJR changed from 2.0 (0, 4.0) to 0 (0, 1.6) for P (p = 0.003), from 2.0 (2.0, 13.6) to 3.0 (1.4, 7.2) for SP (p = 0.183) and from 16.0 (13.0, 25.0) to 2.3 (0, 5.0) for OD (p = 0.003). The Haemo-QoL-A total score improved for 58% of P, 50% of SP and 29% of OD patients. Factor utilization (IU/kg/patient/year) increased by 2,400 (121; 2,586) for P, 1,052 (308; 1,578) for SP and 2,086 (1,498; 2,576) for OD. One of 138 measurements demonstrated a factor activity level below the critical threshold of 0.03 IU/mL while the predicted level was above the threshold. Conclusion Implementing tailored prophylaxis using a Bayesian forecasting approach in a routine clinical practice setting may improve haemophilia clinical outcomes.
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