Retrospective data from Chinese cohorts published in the last few days have placed a strong emphasis on the possibility that acute myocardial injury represents a critical component in the development of serious complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These analyses showed that 19-27% of hospitalized patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 developed acute myocardial injury, defined as an increase in troponin levels. Fifty-sixty percent of these patients died. The highest mortality rate was detected among patients with both progressively incremental troponin levels and a history of cardiovascular disease. Some pathophysiological reasons have been hypothesized regarding the frequently observed increase in troponin levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, but, at the moment, these data could already suggest some clinical management implications, also with the aim of prospectively collecting research data: a troponin dosage should be considered, as a prognostic indicator, in all patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 at hospital admission, periodically during hospitalization, and in the case of clinical deterioration. In those patients with increased troponin levels, serial determinations should be carried out to define the enzymatic trajectory and therefore also the degree of clinical attention that must necessarily be closer in those who turn out to have persistently high or increasing troponin levels. In order to reduce the overdiagnosis risk of acute myocardial injury in critically ill patients, detection of increased troponin levels should always be contextualized into a multi-parametric evaluation.
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