Oxidative stress is considered to be a key factor of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder characterized by reduced dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and accumulated protein aggregates. Rotenone is a worldwide-used pesticide that induces the most common features of Parkinson's by direct inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I. Rotenone-induced Parkinson's models, as well as brain tissues from Parkinson's patients, are characterized by the presence of both lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers resulting from the increased level of free radical species. Oxidation introduces several modifications in protein structure, including carbonylation and nitrotyrosine formation, which severely compromise cell function. Due to the link existing between oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease, antioxidant molecules could represent possible therapeutic tools for this disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of curcumin, a natural compound known for its antioxidant properties, in dopaminergic PC12 cells treated with rotenone, a cell model of Parkinsonism. Our results demonstrate that the treatment of PC12 cells with rotenone causes severe protein damage, with formation of both carbonylated and nitrotyrosine-derived proteins, whereas curcumin (10 µM) co-exposure exerts protective effects by reducing the levels of oxidized proteins. Curcumin also promotes proteasome activation, abolishing the inhibitory effect exerted by rotenone on this degradative system.
Buratta, Sandra;Chiaradia, Elisabetta;Tognoloni, Alessia;Gambelunghe, Angela;Muzi, Giacomo;Urbanelli, Lorena;Emiliani, Carla;Tancini, Brunella
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