Objectives: To compare, using laser flare meter (LFM), the efficacy of topical nepafenac 0.1, % and diclofenac 0.1% ophthalmic solution in the control of anterior chamber inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification for age-related cataract were recruited. Complete evaluation with visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, endothelial cell density, intraocular pressure, retinal tomography and anterior chamber flare evaluation was performed before surgery and 1, 15, 30 and 60 days after surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive topical diclofenac 0.1% 4 times a day for four weeks or nepafenac 0.1% 3 times a day for three weeks in addition to topical steroids and antibiotic. Results: 64 (31 males, mean age 77.3 ± 5.9) patients were enrolled. Half of them were randomly assigned to group A (diclofenac 0.1%) and half to group B (nepafenac 0.1%). There was a statistically significant visual acuity improvement postoperatively in both groups, with no statistical difference between the groups. Intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, endothelial cells count and macular thickness parameters didn’t significantly vary between before and after surgery. One-day after surgery, aqueous flare was significantly higher (22,27 ± 9,25 ph/ms in group A and 22,36 ± 7,47 in group B) than before surgery (14,59 ± 7,16 ph/ms in group A and 11,84 ± 4,44 in group B) in both groups, then declining in the first month and reaching preoperative levels again by 2 months in both groups. In group B, LFM values at 15 and 30 days after surgery were significantly lower (13,59 ± 4,80 and 14,07 ± 5,01) than in group A (17,00 ± 6,97 and 16,96 ± 6,13). Conclusions: Nepafenac ensured a better inflammation control than diclofenac during the first month.
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