Background: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) causes atherosclerotic disease, as demonstrated in experimental and epidemiological cohorts, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies. Main text: There is considerable inconsistency between existing guidelines as to how to effectively manage patients at low overall risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) who have persistently elevated levels of LDL-C. We propose a step-by-step practical approach for the management of cardiovascular risks in individuals with low (< 1%) 10-year risk of CVD, and elevated (> 140 mg/dL, 3.6 mmol/L) LDL-C. The strategy proposed is based on the level of adherence to lifestyle interventions (LSI), and in case of non-adherence, stepwise practical management, including lipid-lowering therapy, is recommended to achieve a target LDL-C levels (< 115 mg/dL, 3.0 mmol/L). Conclusions: Further studies are necessary to answer the questions on the long-term efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the suggested approach. This is critical, considering the ever-increasing numbers of such low-risk patients seen in clinical practice.
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