An efficient and selective procedure was developed for the direct C2–H arylation of indoles using a Pd-loaded metal–organic framework (MOF) as a heterogeneous catalyst and the nontoxic biomass-derived solvent γ-valerolactone (GVL) as a reaction medium. The developed method allows for excellent yields and C-2 selectivity to be achieved and tolerates various substituents on the indole scaffold. The established conditions ensure the stability of the catalyst as well as recoverability, reusability, and low metal leaching into the solution.
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