Introduction and hypothesis: The aims of this study were to evaluate the persistence, the adherence on treatment with mirabegron, the reasons for the interruption in patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and their satisfaction. Methods: This was an Italian multicentre prospective study. Four tertiary urological centers were involved. We included women with no neurogenic OAB symptoms already in therapy with once-daily mirabegron 50 mg for 1 month. They were followed up at 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment with uroflowmetry with voiding diary for 3 days and post-void residual measurement. They completed self-administered Overactive Bladder questionnaire short form (OABq), Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 short form (MMAS), Patient Global Impression-Improvement questionnaire. Patients were divided in OAB wet and OAB dry groups, and in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced groups. Results: Between January 2018 and July 2018, 80 patients with OAB were included. Fifteen (18.7%) patients continued the treatment for 6 months; 17.5% interrupted the therapy before 1 month: 30% within the third month, while, 33.7% after 1 month. The median time to discontinuation with mirabegron was 62.5 days. The mean adherence was 0.42 ± 0.33, median MMAS was 2 (0–4). The adherence was significantly greater in treatment-naïve (22.4%) than treatment-experienced (6.5%) patients, without statistically significant differences in the different OAB form. The cost is the main cause of interruption of therapy (50% of cases).There was an improvement of OABqSF score and PGI-I score. Conclusion: In Italy, the cost compromises adherence and persistence of therapy with mirabegron despite the good functional outcomes.
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