INTRODUCTION: The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor selectively activated by primary bile acids. In addition to its role in regulating bile homeostasis FXR modulates lipogenesis in the liver.AREA COVERED: FXR is a validated pharmacological target. Herein, the authors review preclinical and clinical data supporting the development of FXR agonists in the treatment non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.EXPERT OPINION: Development of systemic FXR agonists to treat the metabolic liver disease has been proven challenging because the side effects associated with these agents including increased levels of cholesterol and LDL-c and reduced HDL-c raising concerns over their long term cardiovascular safety. Additionally, pruritus has emerged as a common, although poorly explained, dose related side effect with all FXR ligands, but is especially common with OCA. FXR agonists that are currently undergoing phase2/3 trials are cilofexor, tropifexor, nidufexor and MET409. Some of these agents are currently developed as combination therapies with other agents including cenicriviroc, a CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor, or firsocostat an acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor. Additional investigations are needed to evaluate the beneficial effects of combination of these agents with statins. It is expected that in the coming years, FXR agonists will be developed as a combination therapy to minimize side effects and increase likelihood of success by targeting different metabolic pathways.

The identification of farnesoid X receptor modulators as treatment options for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Fiorucci, Stefano;Biagioli, Michele;Baldoni, Monia;Ricci, Patrizia;Distrutti, Eleonora
2021-01-01

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor selectively activated by primary bile acids. In addition to its role in regulating bile homeostasis FXR modulates lipogenesis in the liver.AREA COVERED: FXR is a validated pharmacological target. Herein, the authors review preclinical and clinical data supporting the development of FXR agonists in the treatment non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.EXPERT OPINION: Development of systemic FXR agonists to treat the metabolic liver disease has been proven challenging because the side effects associated with these agents including increased levels of cholesterol and LDL-c and reduced HDL-c raising concerns over their long term cardiovascular safety. Additionally, pruritus has emerged as a common, although poorly explained, dose related side effect with all FXR ligands, but is especially common with OCA. FXR agonists that are currently undergoing phase2/3 trials are cilofexor, tropifexor, nidufexor and MET409. Some of these agents are currently developed as combination therapies with other agents including cenicriviroc, a CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor, or firsocostat an acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor. Additional investigations are needed to evaluate the beneficial effects of combination of these agents with statins. It is expected that in the coming years, FXR agonists will be developed as a combination therapy to minimize side effects and increase likelihood of success by targeting different metabolic pathways.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1492275
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