A series of new naphthalimide and phenothiazine-based push-pull systems (NPI-PTZ1-5), in which we structurally modulate the oxidation state of the sulfur atom in the thiazine ring, i.e., S(II), S(IV), and S(VI), was designed and synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The effect of the sulfur oxidation state on the spectral, photophysical, and electrochemical properties was investigated. The steady-state absorption and emission results show that oxygen functionalization greatly improves the optical (absorption coefficient and fluorescence efficiency) and nonlinear optical (hyperpolarizability) features. The cyclic voltammetry experiments and the quantum mechanical calculations suggest that phenothiazine is a stronger electron donor unit relative to phenothiazine-5-oxide and phenothiazine-5,5-dioxide, while the naphthalimide is a strong electron acceptor in all cases. The advanced ultrafast spectroscopic measurements, transient absorption, and broadband fluorescence up conversion give insight into the mechanism of photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer. A planar intramolecular charge transfer (PICT) and highly fluorescent excited state are populated for the oxygen-functionalized molecules NPI-PTZ2,3 and NPI-PTZ5; on the other hand, a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state is produced upon photoexcitation of the oxygen-free derivatives NPI-PTZ1 and NPI-PTZ4, with the fluorescence being thus significantly quenched. These results prove oxygen functionalization as a new effective synthetic strategy to tailor the photophysics of phenothiazine-based organic materials for different optoelectronic applications. While oxygen-functionalized compounds are highly fluorescent and promising active materials for current-to-light conversion in organic light-emitting diode devices, oxygen-free systems show very efficient photoinduced ICT and may be employed for light-to-current conversion in organic photovoltaics.

Tuning the Fluorescence and the Intramolecular Charge Transfer of Phenothiazine Dipolar and Quadrupolar Derivatives by Oxygen Functionalization

Carlotti B.
2021

Abstract

A series of new naphthalimide and phenothiazine-based push-pull systems (NPI-PTZ1-5), in which we structurally modulate the oxidation state of the sulfur atom in the thiazine ring, i.e., S(II), S(IV), and S(VI), was designed and synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The effect of the sulfur oxidation state on the spectral, photophysical, and electrochemical properties was investigated. The steady-state absorption and emission results show that oxygen functionalization greatly improves the optical (absorption coefficient and fluorescence efficiency) and nonlinear optical (hyperpolarizability) features. The cyclic voltammetry experiments and the quantum mechanical calculations suggest that phenothiazine is a stronger electron donor unit relative to phenothiazine-5-oxide and phenothiazine-5,5-dioxide, while the naphthalimide is a strong electron acceptor in all cases. The advanced ultrafast spectroscopic measurements, transient absorption, and broadband fluorescence up conversion give insight into the mechanism of photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer. A planar intramolecular charge transfer (PICT) and highly fluorescent excited state are populated for the oxygen-functionalized molecules NPI-PTZ2,3 and NPI-PTZ5; on the other hand, a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state is produced upon photoexcitation of the oxygen-free derivatives NPI-PTZ1 and NPI-PTZ4, with the fluorescence being thus significantly quenched. These results prove oxygen functionalization as a new effective synthetic strategy to tailor the photophysics of phenothiazine-based organic materials for different optoelectronic applications. While oxygen-functionalized compounds are highly fluorescent and promising active materials for current-to-light conversion in organic light-emitting diode devices, oxygen-free systems show very efficient photoinduced ICT and may be employed for light-to-current conversion in organic photovoltaics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/1496008
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