The synuclein family includes three neuronal proteins, named α-synuclein, β-synuclein, and γ-synuclein, that have peculiar structural features. α-synuclein is largely known for being a key protein in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, namely, dementia with Lewy bodies and multisystem atrophy. The role of β-synuclein and γ-synuclein is less well understood in terms of physiological functions and potential contribution to human diseases. α-synuclein has been investigated extensively in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as a potential biomarker for synucleinopathies. Recently, great attention has been also paid to β-synuclein, whose CSF and blood levels seem to reflect synaptic damage and neurodegeneration independent of the presence of synucleinopathy. In this review, we aim to provide an overview on the pathophysiological roles of the synucleins. Because γ-synuclein has been poorly investigated in the field of synucleinopathy and its pathophysiological roles are far from being clear, we focus on the interactions between α-synuclein and β-synuclein in PD. We also discuss the role of α-synuclein and β-synuclein as potential biomarkers to improve the diagnostic characterization of synucleinopathies, thus highlighting their potential application in clinical trials for disease-modifying therapies. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Alpha and Beta Synucleins: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Application as Biomarkers

Barba L.;Paolini Paoletti F.;Bellomo G.;Gaetani L.;Parnetti L.
2022-01-01

Abstract

The synuclein family includes three neuronal proteins, named α-synuclein, β-synuclein, and γ-synuclein, that have peculiar structural features. α-synuclein is largely known for being a key protein in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies, namely, dementia with Lewy bodies and multisystem atrophy. The role of β-synuclein and γ-synuclein is less well understood in terms of physiological functions and potential contribution to human diseases. α-synuclein has been investigated extensively in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as a potential biomarker for synucleinopathies. Recently, great attention has been also paid to β-synuclein, whose CSF and blood levels seem to reflect synaptic damage and neurodegeneration independent of the presence of synucleinopathy. In this review, we aim to provide an overview on the pathophysiological roles of the synucleins. Because γ-synuclein has been poorly investigated in the field of synucleinopathy and its pathophysiological roles are far from being clear, we focus on the interactions between α-synuclein and β-synuclein in PD. We also discuss the role of α-synuclein and β-synuclein as potential biomarkers to improve the diagnostic characterization of synucleinopathies, thus highlighting their potential application in clinical trials for disease-modifying therapies. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1503533
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