Unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are aspects of SARS-CoV-2-host cell interaction with proposed role in the cytopathic and inflammatory pathogenesis of this viral infection. The role of the NF-kB pathway in these cellular processes remains poorly characterized. When investigated in VERO-E6 cells, SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to markedly stimulate NF-kB protein expression and activity. NF-kB activation occurs early in the infection process (6 hpi) and it is associated with increased MAPK signaling and expression of the UPR inducer IRE-1α. These signal transduction processes characterize the cellular stress response to the virus promoting a pro-inflammatory environment and caspase activation in the host cell. Inhibition of viral replication by the viral protease inhibitor Nelfinavir reverts all these molecular changes also stimulating c-Jun expression, a key component of the JNK/AP-1 pathway with important role in the IRE-1α-mediated transcriptional regulation of stress response genes with anti-inflammatory and cytoprotection function. The present study demonstrates that UPR signaling and its interaction with cellular MAPKs and the NF-kB activity are important aspects of SARS-CoV-2-host cell interaction that deserve further investigation to identify more efficient therapies for this viral infection.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and NF-kB activation in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

Bartolini D.
;
Stabile A. M.;Vacca C.;Pistilli A.;Rende M.;Gioiello A.;Cruciani G.;Galli F.
2022

Abstract

Unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are aspects of SARS-CoV-2-host cell interaction with proposed role in the cytopathic and inflammatory pathogenesis of this viral infection. The role of the NF-kB pathway in these cellular processes remains poorly characterized. When investigated in VERO-E6 cells, SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to markedly stimulate NF-kB protein expression and activity. NF-kB activation occurs early in the infection process (6 hpi) and it is associated with increased MAPK signaling and expression of the UPR inducer IRE-1α. These signal transduction processes characterize the cellular stress response to the virus promoting a pro-inflammatory environment and caspase activation in the host cell. Inhibition of viral replication by the viral protease inhibitor Nelfinavir reverts all these molecular changes also stimulating c-Jun expression, a key component of the JNK/AP-1 pathway with important role in the IRE-1α-mediated transcriptional regulation of stress response genes with anti-inflammatory and cytoprotection function. The present study demonstrates that UPR signaling and its interaction with cellular MAPKs and the NF-kB activity are important aspects of SARS-CoV-2-host cell interaction that deserve further investigation to identify more efficient therapies for this viral infection.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1503694
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