Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment in eradicating high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we present data from a novel HLA-haploidentical HSCT protocol that addressed the 2 remaining major unmet medical needs: leukemia relapse and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Fifty AML patients were enrolled in the study. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation for patients up to age 50 years and total marrow/lymphoid irradiation for patients age 51 to 65 years. Irradiation was followed by thiotepa, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide. Patients received an infusion of 2 * 106/kg donor regulatory T cells on day -4 followed by 1 * 106/kg donor conventional T cells on day -1 and a mean of 10.7 * 106 ± 3.4 *106/kgpurified CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells on day 0. No pharmacological GVHD prophylaxis was administered posttransplantation. Patients achieved full donor-type engraftment. Fifteen patients developed grade ≥2 acute GVHD (aGVHD). Twelve of the 15 patients with aGVHD were alive and no longer receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Moderate/severe cGVHD occurred in only 1 patient. Nonrelapse mortality occurred in 10 patients. Only 2 patients relapsed. Consequently, at a median follow-up of 29 months, the probability of moderate/severe cGVHD/relapse-free survival was 75% (95% confidence interval, 71%-78%). A novel HLA-haploidentical HSCT strategy that combines an age-adapted myeloablative conditioning regimen with regulatory and conventional T-cell adoptive immunotherapy resulted in an unprecedented cGVHD/relapse-free survival rate in 50 AML patients with a median age of 53 years. This trial was registered with the Umbria Region Institutional Review Board Public Registry as identification code 02/14 and public registry #2384/14 and at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03977103.

Haploidentical age-adapted myeloablative transplant and regulatory and effector T cells for acute myeloid leukemia

Pierini, Antonio;Ruggeri, Loredana;Carotti, Alessandra;Falzetti, Franca;Saldi, Simonetta;Ingrosso, Gianluca;Zei, Tiziana;Piccinelli, Sara;Bonato, Samanta;Tricarico, Sara;Mancusi, Antonella;Ciardelli, Sara;Limongello, Roberto;Merluzzi, Mara;Mecucci, Cristina;Martelli, Maria Paola;Falini, Brunangelo;Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio;Aristei, Cynthia;Velardi, Andrea
2021-01-01

Abstract

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment in eradicating high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we present data from a novel HLA-haploidentical HSCT protocol that addressed the 2 remaining major unmet medical needs: leukemia relapse and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Fifty AML patients were enrolled in the study. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation for patients up to age 50 years and total marrow/lymphoid irradiation for patients age 51 to 65 years. Irradiation was followed by thiotepa, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide. Patients received an infusion of 2 * 106/kg donor regulatory T cells on day -4 followed by 1 * 106/kg donor conventional T cells on day -1 and a mean of 10.7 * 106 ± 3.4 *106/kgpurified CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells on day 0. No pharmacological GVHD prophylaxis was administered posttransplantation. Patients achieved full donor-type engraftment. Fifteen patients developed grade ≥2 acute GVHD (aGVHD). Twelve of the 15 patients with aGVHD were alive and no longer receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Moderate/severe cGVHD occurred in only 1 patient. Nonrelapse mortality occurred in 10 patients. Only 2 patients relapsed. Consequently, at a median follow-up of 29 months, the probability of moderate/severe cGVHD/relapse-free survival was 75% (95% confidence interval, 71%-78%). A novel HLA-haploidentical HSCT strategy that combines an age-adapted myeloablative conditioning regimen with regulatory and conventional T-cell adoptive immunotherapy resulted in an unprecedented cGVHD/relapse-free survival rate in 50 AML patients with a median age of 53 years. This trial was registered with the Umbria Region Institutional Review Board Public Registry as identification code 02/14 and public registry #2384/14 and at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03977103.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1505033
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