Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a relatively new entity that has gained increased attention because of its unique features - presence of different subtypes with different malignant potential, biological behavior, and prognosis, higher rates of recurrences and concomitant or metachronous pancreatic duct cancer. It is rare with an incidence of 4 to 5 cases per 100 000. The relative lack of experience significantly hampers decision making for surgery (pancreatic head resection, distal pancreatectomy or enucleation) or follow-up.Herein we present two cases managed by diametrically different tactic according to the risk stratification - distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and observation, respectively. An up-to-date literature review on the key points in diagnostics, indications for surgery, the extent of surgery, follow-up, and prognosis is provided.The tailored approach based on risk stratification is the cornerstone of management. Absolute indications for surgery are the lesions with high-risk stigmata, whereas the worrisome features should be evaluated by endoscopic ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration. Main duct and mixed type are usually referred to surgery, whereas the management of a branch type is more conservative due to the lower rate of invasive cancer. Strict postoperative follow-up is mandatory even in negative resection margins due to a high risk for recurrences and metachronous lesions.Despite the guidelines, the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm remains a major challenge for clinicians and surgeons in the balance the risk/benefit of observation versus resection. Risk stratification plays a key role in decision-making. Future trials need to determine the optimal period of surveillance and the most reliable predictive factors for concomitant pancreatic duct cancer.

Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas: Need for a Tailored Approach to a Rare Entity

Cirocchi, Roberto;
2021

Abstract

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a relatively new entity that has gained increased attention because of its unique features - presence of different subtypes with different malignant potential, biological behavior, and prognosis, higher rates of recurrences and concomitant or metachronous pancreatic duct cancer. It is rare with an incidence of 4 to 5 cases per 100 000. The relative lack of experience significantly hampers decision making for surgery (pancreatic head resection, distal pancreatectomy or enucleation) or follow-up.Herein we present two cases managed by diametrically different tactic according to the risk stratification - distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and observation, respectively. An up-to-date literature review on the key points in diagnostics, indications for surgery, the extent of surgery, follow-up, and prognosis is provided.The tailored approach based on risk stratification is the cornerstone of management. Absolute indications for surgery are the lesions with high-risk stigmata, whereas the worrisome features should be evaluated by endoscopic ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration. Main duct and mixed type are usually referred to surgery, whereas the management of a branch type is more conservative due to the lower rate of invasive cancer. Strict postoperative follow-up is mandatory even in negative resection margins due to a high risk for recurrences and metachronous lesions.Despite the guidelines, the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm remains a major challenge for clinicians and surgeons in the balance the risk/benefit of observation versus resection. Risk stratification plays a key role in decision-making. Future trials need to determine the optimal period of surveillance and the most reliable predictive factors for concomitant pancreatic duct cancer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/1530093
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