S-D-lactoylglutathione (SDL) is an intermediate of the glutathione-dependent metabolism of methylglyoxal (MGO) by glyoxalases. MGO is an electrophilic compound that is inevitably produced in conjunction with glucose breakdown and is essentially metabolized via the glyoxalase route. In the last decades, MGO metabolism and its cytotoxic effects have been under active investigation, while almost nothing is known about SDL. This article seeks to fill the gap by presenting an overview of the chemistry, biochemistry, physiological role and clinical importance of SDL. The effects of intracellular SDL are investigated in three main directions: as a substrate for post-translational protein modifications, as a reservoir for mitochondrial reduced glutathione and as an energy currency. In essence, all three approaches point to one direction, namely, a metabolism-related regulatory role, enhancing the cellular defense against insults. It is also suggested that an increased plasma concentration of SDL or its metabolites may possibly serve as marker molecules in hemolytic states, particularly when the cause of hemolysis is a disturbance of the pay-off phase of the glycolytic chain. Finally, SDL could also represent a useful marker in such metabolic disorders as diabetes mellitus or ketotic states, in which its formation is expected to be enhanced. Despite the lack of clear-cut evidence underlying the clinical and experimental findings, the investigation of SDL metabolism is a promising field of research.

Metabolic Shades of S-D-Lactoylglutathione

Cinzia Antognelli;
2022

Abstract

S-D-lactoylglutathione (SDL) is an intermediate of the glutathione-dependent metabolism of methylglyoxal (MGO) by glyoxalases. MGO is an electrophilic compound that is inevitably produced in conjunction with glucose breakdown and is essentially metabolized via the glyoxalase route. In the last decades, MGO metabolism and its cytotoxic effects have been under active investigation, while almost nothing is known about SDL. This article seeks to fill the gap by presenting an overview of the chemistry, biochemistry, physiological role and clinical importance of SDL. The effects of intracellular SDL are investigated in three main directions: as a substrate for post-translational protein modifications, as a reservoir for mitochondrial reduced glutathione and as an energy currency. In essence, all three approaches point to one direction, namely, a metabolism-related regulatory role, enhancing the cellular defense against insults. It is also suggested that an increased plasma concentration of SDL or its metabolites may possibly serve as marker molecules in hemolytic states, particularly when the cause of hemolysis is a disturbance of the pay-off phase of the glycolytic chain. Finally, SDL could also represent a useful marker in such metabolic disorders as diabetes mellitus or ketotic states, in which its formation is expected to be enhanced. Despite the lack of clear-cut evidence underlying the clinical and experimental findings, the investigation of SDL metabolism is a promising field of research.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11391/1532175
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