Varicocele (VC) is the most common abnormality identified in men evaluated for hypofertility. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced antioxidants concentrations are key contributors in varicocele-mediated hypofertility. Moreover, inflammation and alterations in testicular immunity negatively impact male fertility. In particular, NLRP3 inflammasome activation was hypothesized to lead to seminal inflammation, in which the levels of specific cytokines, such as IL-1 beta and IL-18, are overexpressed. In this review, we described the role played by oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in VC disease. The consequences of ROS overproduction in testis, including inflammation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin damage, and sperm DNA fragmentation, leading to abnormal testicular function and failed spermatogenesis, were highlighted. Finally, we described some therapeutic antioxidant strategies, with recognized beneficial effects in counteracting OS and inflammation in testes, as possible therapeutic drugs against varicocele-mediated hypofertility.

The Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Oxidative Stress in Varicocele-Mediated Male Hypofertility

Poli, Giulia
;
Fabi, Consuelo;Sugoni, Chiara;Bellet, Marina Maria;Costantini, Claudio;Brancorsini, Stefano
2022

Abstract

Varicocele (VC) is the most common abnormality identified in men evaluated for hypofertility. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced antioxidants concentrations are key contributors in varicocele-mediated hypofertility. Moreover, inflammation and alterations in testicular immunity negatively impact male fertility. In particular, NLRP3 inflammasome activation was hypothesized to lead to seminal inflammation, in which the levels of specific cytokines, such as IL-1 beta and IL-18, are overexpressed. In this review, we described the role played by oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in VC disease. The consequences of ROS overproduction in testis, including inflammation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin damage, and sperm DNA fragmentation, leading to abnormal testicular function and failed spermatogenesis, were highlighted. Finally, we described some therapeutic antioxidant strategies, with recognized beneficial effects in counteracting OS and inflammation in testes, as possible therapeutic drugs against varicocele-mediated hypofertility.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1532478
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