Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is unanimously recognized as a major modifiable risk factor related to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Consistent evidence confirms that reducing LDL-C is associated with reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), with benefits proportionally related to initial individual CV risk and absolute reduction of LDL-C levels. The recent European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention have proposed a revised approach in cardiovascular risk evaluation, taking into account a renewed consideration of the interaction between risk factors and possible confounding factors (e.g., age). Although for patients considered to be at high and very high cardiovascular risk the need for stringent risk factors treatment is clearly stated, for those who are at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk the issue is more debated. For those latter subjects, current guidelines indicate that risk factor treatment is generally not necessary, unless the impact of CV risk modifiers, lifetime CV risk and treatment benefit may be substantial. In addition, despite the estimated low-to-moderate short-term CV risk, the early appearance of even mild LDL-C level elevations may contribute to impair long-term CV prognosis. Therefore, encouraging the achievement of desired LDL-C goals through tailored conservative lifestyle changes and, if necessary, pharmacologic strategies should not be excluded categorically in all low-to-moderate risk individuals. In this review, we summarize the most recent evidence that may influence the choice to treat or not to treat LDL-C elevations in subjects at low-to-moderate risk and the suggested therapeutic tools aimed at achieving the recommended LDL-C goals.

Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy in Patients at Low-to-Moderate Cardiovascular Risk

Figorilli, Filippo;Mannarino, Massimo R
;
Bianconi, Vanessa;Pirro, Matteo
2022

Abstract

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is unanimously recognized as a major modifiable risk factor related to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Consistent evidence confirms that reducing LDL-C is associated with reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), with benefits proportionally related to initial individual CV risk and absolute reduction of LDL-C levels. The recent European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention have proposed a revised approach in cardiovascular risk evaluation, taking into account a renewed consideration of the interaction between risk factors and possible confounding factors (e.g., age). Although for patients considered to be at high and very high cardiovascular risk the need for stringent risk factors treatment is clearly stated, for those who are at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk the issue is more debated. For those latter subjects, current guidelines indicate that risk factor treatment is generally not necessary, unless the impact of CV risk modifiers, lifetime CV risk and treatment benefit may be substantial. In addition, despite the estimated low-to-moderate short-term CV risk, the early appearance of even mild LDL-C level elevations may contribute to impair long-term CV prognosis. Therefore, encouraging the achievement of desired LDL-C goals through tailored conservative lifestyle changes and, if necessary, pharmacologic strategies should not be excluded categorically in all low-to-moderate risk individuals. In this review, we summarize the most recent evidence that may influence the choice to treat or not to treat LDL-C elevations in subjects at low-to-moderate risk and the suggested therapeutic tools aimed at achieving the recommended LDL-C goals.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1532493
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