Microorganisms including yeasts are responsible for mineralization of organic matter in cold regions, and their characterization is critical to elucidate the ecology of such environments on Earth. Strategies developed by yeasts to survive in cold environments have been increasingly studied in the last years and applied to different biotechnological applications, but their knowledge is still limited. Microbial adaptations to cold include the synthesis of cryoprotective compounds, as well as the presence of a high number of genes encoding the synthesis of proteins/enzymes characterized by a reduced proline content and highly flexible and large catalytic active sites. This study is a comparative genomic study on the adaptations of yeasts isolated from the Italian Alps, considering their growth kinetics. The optimal temperature for growth (OTG), growth rate (Gr), and draft genome sizes considerably varied (OTG, 10°C–20°C; Gr, 0.071–0.0726; genomes, 20.7–21.5 Mpb; %GC, 50.9–61.5). A direct relationship was observed between calculated protein flexibilities and OTG, but not for Gr. Putative genes encoding for cold stress response were found, as well as high numbers of genes encoding for general, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. The cold response genes found in the studied yeasts play roles in cell membrane adaptation, compatible solute accumulation, RNA structure changes, and protein folding, i.e., dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, omega-6 fatty acid, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, ATP-dependent RNA helicase, and elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids. A redundancy for several putative genes was found, higher for P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase, alpha/beta hydrolase, armadillo repeat-containing proteins, and the major facilitator superfamily protein. Hundreds of thousands of small open reading frames (SmORFs) were found in all studied yeasts, especially in Phenoliferia glacialis. Gene clusters encoding for the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as terpene, non-ribosomal peptide, and type III polyketide were predicted in four, three, and two studied yeasts, respectively.

A genomic approach to analyze the cold adaptation of yeasts isolated from Italian Alps

Turchetti, Benedetta;Buzzini, Pietro;
2022

Abstract

Microorganisms including yeasts are responsible for mineralization of organic matter in cold regions, and their characterization is critical to elucidate the ecology of such environments on Earth. Strategies developed by yeasts to survive in cold environments have been increasingly studied in the last years and applied to different biotechnological applications, but their knowledge is still limited. Microbial adaptations to cold include the synthesis of cryoprotective compounds, as well as the presence of a high number of genes encoding the synthesis of proteins/enzymes characterized by a reduced proline content and highly flexible and large catalytic active sites. This study is a comparative genomic study on the adaptations of yeasts isolated from the Italian Alps, considering their growth kinetics. The optimal temperature for growth (OTG), growth rate (Gr), and draft genome sizes considerably varied (OTG, 10°C–20°C; Gr, 0.071–0.0726; genomes, 20.7–21.5 Mpb; %GC, 50.9–61.5). A direct relationship was observed between calculated protein flexibilities and OTG, but not for Gr. Putative genes encoding for cold stress response were found, as well as high numbers of genes encoding for general, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. The cold response genes found in the studied yeasts play roles in cell membrane adaptation, compatible solute accumulation, RNA structure changes, and protein folding, i.e., dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, omega-6 fatty acid, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, ATP-dependent RNA helicase, and elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids. A redundancy for several putative genes was found, higher for P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase, alpha/beta hydrolase, armadillo repeat-containing proteins, and the major facilitator superfamily protein. Hundreds of thousands of small open reading frames (SmORFs) were found in all studied yeasts, especially in Phenoliferia glacialis. Gene clusters encoding for the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as terpene, non-ribosomal peptide, and type III polyketide were predicted in four, three, and two studied yeasts, respectively.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1534415
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