A heteroleptic dirhodium paddlewheel complex comprising three chiral carboxylate ligands and one achiral acetamidate ligand has recently been found to be uniquely effective in catalyzing the asymmetric cyclopropanation of olefins with alpha-stannylated (silylated and germylated) alpha-diazoacetate derivatives. A number of control experiments in combination with detailed computational studies provide compelling evidence that an interligand hydrogen bond between the -NH group of the amidate and the ester carbonyl group of the reactive rhodium carbene intermediate plays a quintessential role in the stereodetermining transition state. The penalty for distorting this array outweighs steric arguments and renders two of the four conceivable transitions states unviable. Based on this mechanistic insight, the design of the parent catalyst is revisited herein: placement of appropriate peripheral substituents allows high levels of diastereocontrol to be imposed upon cyclopropanation, which the original catalyst lacks. Because the new complexes allow either trans- or cis-configured stannylated cyclopropanes to be made selectively and in excellent optical purity, this transformation also marks a rare case of diastereodivergent asymmetric catalysis. The products are amenable to stereospecific cross coupling with aryl halides or alkenyl triflates; these transformations appear to be the first examples of the formation of stereogenic quaternary carbon centers by the Stille reaction; carbonylative coupling is also achieved. Moreover, tin/lithium exchange affords chiral lithium enolates, which can be intercepted with a variety of electrophilic partners. The virtues and inherent flexibility of this new methodology are illustrated by an efficient synthesis of two salinilactones, extremely scarce bacterial metabolites with signaling function involved in the self-regulatory growth inhibition of the producing strain.

From Serendipity to Rational Design: Heteroleptic Dirhodium Amidate Complexes for Diastereodivergent Asymmetric Cyclopropanation

Bistoni, Giovanni;
2022

Abstract

A heteroleptic dirhodium paddlewheel complex comprising three chiral carboxylate ligands and one achiral acetamidate ligand has recently been found to be uniquely effective in catalyzing the asymmetric cyclopropanation of olefins with alpha-stannylated (silylated and germylated) alpha-diazoacetate derivatives. A number of control experiments in combination with detailed computational studies provide compelling evidence that an interligand hydrogen bond between the -NH group of the amidate and the ester carbonyl group of the reactive rhodium carbene intermediate plays a quintessential role in the stereodetermining transition state. The penalty for distorting this array outweighs steric arguments and renders two of the four conceivable transitions states unviable. Based on this mechanistic insight, the design of the parent catalyst is revisited herein: placement of appropriate peripheral substituents allows high levels of diastereocontrol to be imposed upon cyclopropanation, which the original catalyst lacks. Because the new complexes allow either trans- or cis-configured stannylated cyclopropanes to be made selectively and in excellent optical purity, this transformation also marks a rare case of diastereodivergent asymmetric catalysis. The products are amenable to stereospecific cross coupling with aryl halides or alkenyl triflates; these transformations appear to be the first examples of the formation of stereogenic quaternary carbon centers by the Stille reaction; carbonylative coupling is also achieved. Moreover, tin/lithium exchange affords chiral lithium enolates, which can be intercepted with a variety of electrophilic partners. The virtues and inherent flexibility of this new methodology are illustrated by an efficient synthesis of two salinilactones, extremely scarce bacterial metabolites with signaling function involved in the self-regulatory growth inhibition of the producing strain.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1534954
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