In this review, we shed light on recent advances regarding the characterization of biochemical pathways of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction with particular attention to their role in neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. While the mechanistic components of these pathways are mostly uncovered today, the crosstalk between mechanical forces and soluble intracellular signaling is still not fully elucidated. Here, we recapitulate the general concepts of mechanobiology and the mechanisms that govern the mechanosensing and mechanotransduction processes, and we examine the crosstalk between mechanical stimuli and intracellular biochemical response, highlighting their effect on cellular organelles' homeostasis and dysfunction. In particular, we discuss the current knowledge about the translation of mechanosignaling into biochemical signaling, focusing on those diseases that encompass metabolic accumulation of mutant proteins and have as primary characteristics the formation of pathological intracellular aggregates, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease. Overall, recent findings elucidate how mechanosensing and mechanotransduction pathways may be crucial to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases and emphasize the importance of these pathways for identifying potential therapeutic targets.

Biochemical Pathways of Cellular Mechanosensing/Mechanotransduction and Their Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases Pathogenesis

Tortorella, Ilaria
Conceptualization
;
Argentati, Chiara
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Emiliani, Carla
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Morena, Francesco
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Martino, Sabata
Writing – Review & Editing
2022-01-01

Abstract

In this review, we shed light on recent advances regarding the characterization of biochemical pathways of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction with particular attention to their role in neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. While the mechanistic components of these pathways are mostly uncovered today, the crosstalk between mechanical forces and soluble intracellular signaling is still not fully elucidated. Here, we recapitulate the general concepts of mechanobiology and the mechanisms that govern the mechanosensing and mechanotransduction processes, and we examine the crosstalk between mechanical stimuli and intracellular biochemical response, highlighting their effect on cellular organelles' homeostasis and dysfunction. In particular, we discuss the current knowledge about the translation of mechanosignaling into biochemical signaling, focusing on those diseases that encompass metabolic accumulation of mutant proteins and have as primary characteristics the formation of pathological intracellular aggregates, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease. Overall, recent findings elucidate how mechanosensing and mechanotransduction pathways may be crucial to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases and emphasize the importance of these pathways for identifying potential therapeutic targets.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1536074
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