: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has both antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities and has been used as adjuvant therapy in several viral infections. Recently, NAC attracted attention for its possible role in reducing the affinity of the spike protein receptor binding domain to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptors. Since only NAC solutions are available for inhalation, the purpose of the work was to develop a NAC dry powder for inhalation using mannitol or leucine as excipient. The powder was successfully produced using co-spray-drying with leucine. ATR-FTIR analyses evidenced spectral variations ascribed to the formation of specific interactions between NAC and leucine. This effect on the NAC environment was not evident for NAC-mannitol powders, but mannitol was in a different polymorphic form compared to the supplied material. Both the feedstock concentration and the leucine content have an impact on the powder aerodynamic features. In particular, to maximize the respirable fraction, it is preferable to produce the powder starting from a 0.5 % w/v feedstock solution using 33 to 50 % w/w leucine content. The NAC-leucine powder was stable for ten months maintaining NAC content of 50 % (w/w) and about 200 μg of NAC was able to deposit on a transwell insert, useful for future in vitro studies.

Development of spray-dried N-acetylcysteine dry powder for inhalation

Mancini, Lorenzo;Paolantoni, Marco
;
Schoubben, Aurelie
;
Ricci, Maurizio
2023-01-01

Abstract

: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has both antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities and has been used as adjuvant therapy in several viral infections. Recently, NAC attracted attention for its possible role in reducing the affinity of the spike protein receptor binding domain to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptors. Since only NAC solutions are available for inhalation, the purpose of the work was to develop a NAC dry powder for inhalation using mannitol or leucine as excipient. The powder was successfully produced using co-spray-drying with leucine. ATR-FTIR analyses evidenced spectral variations ascribed to the formation of specific interactions between NAC and leucine. This effect on the NAC environment was not evident for NAC-mannitol powders, but mannitol was in a different polymorphic form compared to the supplied material. Both the feedstock concentration and the leucine content have an impact on the powder aerodynamic features. In particular, to maximize the respirable fraction, it is preferable to produce the powder starting from a 0.5 % w/v feedstock solution using 33 to 50 % w/w leucine content. The NAC-leucine powder was stable for ten months maintaining NAC content of 50 % (w/w) and about 200 μg of NAC was able to deposit on a transwell insert, useful for future in vitro studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1538093
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