: Accurate nutritional assessment based on dietary intake, physical activity, genetic makeup, and metabolites is required to prevent from developing and/or to treat people suffering from malnutrition as well as other nutrition related health issues. Nutritional screening ought to be considered as an essential part of clinical assessment for every patient on admission to healthcare setups, as well as on change in clinical conditions. Therefore, a detailed nutritional assessment must be performed every time nutritional imbalances are observed or suspected. In this review we have explored different techniques used for nutritional and physical activity assessment. Dietary Intake (DI) assessment is a multidimensional and complex process. Traditionally, dietary intake is assessed through self-report techniques, but due to limitations like biases, random errors, misestimations, and nutrient databases-linked errors, questions arise about the adequacy of self-reporting dietary intake procedures. Despite the limitations in assessing dietary intake (DI) and physical activity (PA), new methods and improved technologies such as biomarkers analysis, blood tests, genetic assessments, metabolomic analysis, DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging), and CT (computed tomography) scanning procedures have made much progress in the improvement of these measures. Genes also plays a crucial role in dietary intake and physical activity. Similarly, metabolites are also involved in different nutritional pathways. This is why integrating knowledge about the genetic and metabolic markers along with the latest technologies for dietary intake (DI) and physical activity (PA) assessment holds the key for accurately assessing one's nutritional status and prevent malnutrition and its related complications.
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