: The aim of the present review was to assess the impact of DNA damage repair (DDR) mutations on response and outcome of patients (pts) affected by advanced prostate cancer (PCa) submitted to radionuclide therapies with [223Ra]RaCl2 (223Ra-therapy) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligands. A systematic literature search according to PRISMA criteria was made by using two main databases. Only studies published up until to October 2022 in the English language with ≥10 enrolled patients were selected. Seven studies including 326 pts, of whom 201 (61.6%) harboring DDR defects, were selected. The majority of selected papers were retrospective and four out of seven (57.1%) had small sample size (<50 pts). Three out of seven (42.8%) studies reported a more favorable outcome (overall or progression free survival) after therapy with alpha emitters (223Ra-therapy or [225Ac]Ac-PSMA-617) in subjects with DDR defects with respect to those without mutations. In two studies employing alpha or beta emitters ([177Lu]/[225Ac]-PMSA), no significant benefit was registered in pts harboring DDR defects. In all but one paper, no significant difference in response rate was reported among pts with or without DDR mutations. Although preliminary and biased by the retrospective design, preliminary data suggest a trend towards a longer survival in PCa pts harboring DDR defects submitted to radionuclide targeted therapy with alpha emitters.
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