: Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1) is a rare autosomal disease caused by mutations in AGXT that lead to the deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). AGT is a liver pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that detoxifies glyoxylate inside peroxisomes. The lack of AGT activity results in a build-up of glyoxylate that is oxidized to oxalate, then culminating in hyperoxaluria often leading to kidney failure. Most pathogenic mutations reduce AGT specific activity because of catalytic defects, improper folding, mistargeting to mitochondria, reduced intracellular stability, dimerization, and/or aggregation. Administration of pyridoxine (PN), a precursor of PLP, is a therapeutic option available for PH1 patients carrying responsive genotypes through the ability of the coenzyme to behave as a chaperone. Here, we report the clinical and biochemical characterization of the novel mutation c.1093G > T (p.Gly365Cys) identified in a Japanese patient. In silico studies predict that the p.Gly365Cys mutation causes a steric clash resulting in a local rearrangement of the region surrounding the active site, thus possibly affecting PLP binding and catalysis. Indeed, the purified p.Gly365Cys mutant displays proper folding but shows an extensive decrease of catalytic efficiency due to an altered PLP-binding. When expressed in AGXT1-KO HepG2 cells the variant shows reduced specific activity and protein levels in comparison with wild type AGT that cannot be rescued by PN treatment. Overall, our data indicate that the mutation of Gly365 induces a conformational change at the AGT active site translating into a functional and structural defect and allow to predict that the patients will not be responsive to vitamin B6, thus supporting the usefulness of preclinical studies to guide therapeutic decisions in the era of precision medicine.
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