(1) Background: In COVID-19 patients, the occurrence of thromboembolic complications contributes to disease progression and mortality. In patients at increased risk for thrombotic complications, therapeutic enoxaparin should be considered. However, critically ill COVID-19 patients could develop resistance to enoxaparin. Bivalirudin, a thrombin inhibitor, may be an alternative. This pilot multicenter randomized controlled trial aims to ascertain if bivalirudin may reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation, as compared to enoxaparin. (2) Methods: Intubated COVID-19 patients at risk for thrombo-embolic complications were randomized to receive therapeutic doses of enoxaparin or bivalirudin. We ascertained the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation during the first 28 days from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A standardized weaning protocol was implemented in all centers. In addition, we assessed the occurrence of thromboembolic complications, the number of patients requiring percutaneous tracheostomy, the gas exchange, the reintubation rate, the ICU length of stay, the ICU and 28-days mortalities. (3) Results: We enrolled 58 consecutive patients. Bivalirudin did not reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to enoxaparin (12 [8; 13] vs. 13 [10; 15] days, respectively; p = 0.078). Thrombotic (p = 0.056) and embolic (p = 0.423) complications, need for tracheostomy (p = 0.423) or reintubation (p = 0.999), the ICU length of stay (p = 0.076) and mortality (p = 0.777) were also similar between treatments. Patients randomized to bivalirudin showed a higher oxygenation at day 7 and 15 after randomization, when compared to enoxaparin group. (4) Conclusions: In intubated COVID-19 patients at increased risk for thromboembolic complications, bivalirudin did not reduce the time spent under invasive mechanical ventilation, nor improved any other clinical outcomes.
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