An accurate survey of old and new datasets allowed us to probe the nature and role of fluids in the seismogenic processes of the Apennines mountain range in Italy. New datasets include the 1985-2021 instrumented seis-micity catalog, the computed seismogenic thickness, and geodetic velocities and strains, whereas data from the literature comprise focal mechanism solutions, CO2 release, Moho depth, tomographic seismic velocities, heat flow and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Most of the inspected datasets highlight differences between the western and eastern domains of the Apennines, while the transition zone is marked by high geodetic strain, prevailing uplift at the surface and high seismic release, and spatially corresponds with the overlapping Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Mohos. Published tomographic models suggest the presence of a large hot asthenospheric mantle wedge which intrudes beneath the western side of the Apennines and disappears at the southern tip of the southern Apennines. This wedge modulates the thermal structure and rheology of the overlying crust as well as the melting of carbonate-rich sediments of the subducting Adriatic lithosphere. As a result, CO2-rich fluids of mantle-origin have been recognized in association with the occurrence of destructive seismic sequences in the Apennines. The stretched western domain of the Apennines is characterized by a broad pattern of emissions from CO2-rich fluids that vanishes beneath the axial belt of the chain, where fluids are instead trapped within crustal overpressurized reservoirs, favoring their involvement in the evolution of destructive seismic sequences in that region. In the Apennines, areas with high mantle He are associated with different degrees of metasomatism of the mantle wedge from north to south. Beneath the chain, the thickness and permeability of the crust control the formation of overpressurized fluid zones at depth and the seismicity is favored by extensional faults that act as high permeability pathways. This multidisciplinary study aims to contribute to our understanding of the fluid-related mechanisms of earthquake preparation, nucleation and evolution encouraging a multiparametric monitoring system of different geophysical and geochemical observables that could lead the creation of a data-constrained and reliable conceptual model of the role of fluids in the preparatory phase of earthquakes in the Apennines.
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