The Diet and Androgen-5 (DIANA-5) trial aimed at testing whether a dietary change based on the Mediterranean diet and on macrobiotic principles can reduce the incidence of breast cancer (BC)-related events. We analyzed the adherence to the DIANA-5 dietary recommendations by randomization group after 1 year of intervention. We evaluated the association between dietary adherence and changes in body weight and metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters. BC women aged 35-70 years were eligible. After the baseline examinations, women were randomized into an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A total of 1344 BC women (689 IG and 655 CG) concluded the first year of dietary intervention. IG showed greater anthropometric and metabolic improvements compared to CG. These changes were significantly associated with increased adherence to the dietary recommendations. Women who increased recommended foods consumption or reduced discouraged foods consumption showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.37 (0.70-2.67) and 2.02 (1.03-3.98) to improve three or more MS parameters. Moreover, women in the higher category of dietary change showed a four times higher OR of reducing body weight compared to the lower category (p < 0.001). The DIANA-5 dietary intervention is effective in reducing body weight and MS parameters.
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