Introduction Breast cancer (BC) survivors are constantly increasing, and research investment for the identification of modifiable factors associated with BC recurrences is increasing too. The Western lifestyle, characterized by low levels of physical activity and a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, animal fats, and protein, is associated with high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and high serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors.Discussion The present work summarizes the association between all these metabolic and hormonal factors with the risk of BC and BC recurrences. Since metabolic syndrome and endocrine imbalance may be favorably modified through comprehensive change in lifestyle, dietary changes should be recommended both for BC prevention and treatment.
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