A recent and prominent trend is the integration of Blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT). Blockchain can enable completely decentralised IoT applications where autonomous IoT devices securely interact without the need of a centralised trusted party. The perfect match of these two technologies still needs many challenges to be faced. IoT devices can produce a huge amount of data which can pose blockchain scalability problems in terms of fees and memory. IoT transactions should occur in real-time, but in reality it seldom happens due to transactions validation and involved consensus techniques. In this paper we introduce a novel industrial IoT case study scenario, where Blockchain technology has been used to check the compliance of industrial incinerators with the Italian emission regulations of pollutant. We have explored various blockchain based alternatives that are on-chain, off-chain and permissioned based solutions. These have been compared in order to find a viable one.
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