The electromagnetic fields have a great influence on the behaviour of all the living systems. The as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle imposes, in case of long exposures to low (i.e. power systems) or high frequency (i.e. microwave systems or cell phones) fields, some limitations to the radiated field by the industrial equipment. On the other hand, some benefits can be taken from the effects of the electromagnetic fields on the living being: the hyperthermal technique is well known for the treatment of the cancer. Either we want to be protected from the fields, or we want to take benefit of the positive effects of these fields, all the effects thermal as well as genetic have to be well known. Like in any industrial application, the electromagnetic field computation allows a better knowledge of the phenomena, and an optimised design. Hence, there is a very important challenge for the techniques of computation of electromagnetic fields. The major difficulties that appear are: (1) related to the material properties - the "material" (the human body) has very unusual properties (magnetic permeability, electric permittivity, electric conductivity), these properties are not well known and depend on the activity of the person, and this material is an active material at the cell scale; (2) related to the coupling phenomena - the problem is actually a coupled problem: the thermal effects is one of the major effects and it is affected by the blood circulation; (3) related to the geometry - the geometry is complex and one has to take into account the environment. The problems that we have to face with are - the identification of the properties of the "material", the coupled problem solution and the representation of the simulated phenomena.
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