Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers represent a well-established tool for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), independently from the clinical stage, by reflecting the presence of brain amyloidosis (A+) and tauopathy (T+). In front of this important achievement, so far, (i) CSF AD biomarkers have not yet been adopted for routine clinical use in all Centers dedicated to AD, mainly due to inter-lab variation and lack of internationally accepted cutoff values; (ii) we do need to add other biomarkers more suitable to correlate with the clinical stage and disease monitoring; (iii) we also need to detect the co-presence of other 'non-AD' pathologies. Areas covered: Efforts to establish standardized cutoff values based on large-scale multi-center studies are discussed. The influence of aging and comorbidities on CSF biomarker levels is also analyzed, and possible solutions are presented, i.e. complementing the A/T/(N) system with markers of axonal damage and synaptic derangement. Expert opinion: The first, mandatory need is to reach common cutoff values and defined (automated) methodologies for CSF AD biomarkers. To properly select subjects deserving CSF analysis, blood tests might represent the first-line approach. In those subjects undergoing CSF analysis, multiple biomarkers, able to give a comprehensive and personalized pathophysiological/prognostic information, should be included.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.