: The improper management of solid waste, particularly the dumping of untreated municipal solid waste, poses a growing global challenge in both developed and developing nations. The generation of leachate is one of the significant issues that arise from this practice, and it can have harmful impacts on both the environment and public health. This paper presents an overview of the primary waste types that generate landfill leachate and their characteristics. This includes examining the distribution of waste types in landfills globally and how they have changed over time, which can provide valuable insights into potential pollutants in a given area and their trends. With a lack of specific regulations and growing concerns regarding environmental and health impacts, the paper also focuses on emerging contaminants. Furthermore, the environmental and ecological impacts of leachate, along with associated health risks, are analyzed. The potential applications of landfill leachate, suggested interventions and future directions are also discussed in the manuscript. Finally, this work addresses future research directions in landfill leachate studies, with attention, for the first time to the potentialities that artificial intelligence can offer for landfill leachate management, studies, and applications.
Di Maria, Francesco
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