Background What baseline predictors would be involved in mortality in people with primary Sjogren syndrome (SjS) remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the baseline characteristics collected at the time of diagnosis of SjS associated with mortality and to identify mortality risk factors for all-cause death and deaths related to systemic SjS activity measured by the ESSDAI score.Methods In this international, real-world, retrospective, cohort study, we retrospectively collected data from 27 countries on mortality and causes of death from the Big Data Sjogren Registry. Inclusion criteria consisted of fulfilling 2002/2016 SjS classification criteria, and exclusion criteria included chronic HCV/HIV infections and associated systemic autoimmune diseases. A statistical approach based on a directed acyclic graph was used, with all-cause and Sjogren-related mortality as primary endpoints. The key determinants that defined the disease phenotype at diagnosis (glandular, systemic, and immunological) were analysed as independent variables.Findings Between January 1st, 2014 and December 31, 2023, data from 11,372 patients with primary SjS (93.5% women, 78.4% classified as White, mean age at diagnosis of 51.1 years) included in the Registry were analysed. 876 ( 7.7%) deaths were recorded after a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (SD 7.12). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for all-cause death identified eight Sjogren-related variables (ocular and oral tests, salivary biopsy, ESSDAI, ANA, anti-Ro, anti-La, and cryoglobulins). The multivariate CPH model adjusted for these variables and the epidemiological features showed that DAS-ESSDAI (high vs no high: HR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27-2.22) and cryoglobulins (positive vs negative: HR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.22-2.42) were independent predictors of all cause death. Of the 640 deaths with available information detailing the specific cause of death, 14% were due to systemic SjS. Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for Sjogren-cause death identified five Sjogrenrelated variables (oral tests, clinESSDAI, DAS-ESSDAI, ANA, and cryoglobulins). The multivariate competing risks CPH model adjusted for these variables and the epidemiological features showed that oral tests (abnormal vs normal results: HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.87 ), DAS-ESSDAI (high vs no high: HR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.22-1.96 ) and cryoglobulins (positive vs negative: HR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16-2) were independent predictors of SjS-related death.Interpretation The key mortality risk factors at the time of SjS diagnosis were positive cryoglobulins and a high systemic activity scored using the ESSDAI, conferring a 2-times increased risk of all-cause and SjS-related death. ESSDAI measurement and cryoglobulin testing should be considered mandatory when an individual is diagnosed with SjS.Funding Novartis.Copyright & COPY; 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Mortality risk factors in primary Sjögren syndrome: a real-world, retrospective, cohort study

Bartoloni, Elena
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023

Abstract

Background What baseline predictors would be involved in mortality in people with primary Sjogren syndrome (SjS) remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the baseline characteristics collected at the time of diagnosis of SjS associated with mortality and to identify mortality risk factors for all-cause death and deaths related to systemic SjS activity measured by the ESSDAI score.Methods In this international, real-world, retrospective, cohort study, we retrospectively collected data from 27 countries on mortality and causes of death from the Big Data Sjogren Registry. Inclusion criteria consisted of fulfilling 2002/2016 SjS classification criteria, and exclusion criteria included chronic HCV/HIV infections and associated systemic autoimmune diseases. A statistical approach based on a directed acyclic graph was used, with all-cause and Sjogren-related mortality as primary endpoints. The key determinants that defined the disease phenotype at diagnosis (glandular, systemic, and immunological) were analysed as independent variables.Findings Between January 1st, 2014 and December 31, 2023, data from 11,372 patients with primary SjS (93.5% women, 78.4% classified as White, mean age at diagnosis of 51.1 years) included in the Registry were analysed. 876 ( 7.7%) deaths were recorded after a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (SD 7.12). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for all-cause death identified eight Sjogren-related variables (ocular and oral tests, salivary biopsy, ESSDAI, ANA, anti-Ro, anti-La, and cryoglobulins). The multivariate CPH model adjusted for these variables and the epidemiological features showed that DAS-ESSDAI (high vs no high: HR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27-2.22) and cryoglobulins (positive vs negative: HR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.22-2.42) were independent predictors of all cause death. Of the 640 deaths with available information detailing the specific cause of death, 14% were due to systemic SjS. Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for Sjogren-cause death identified five Sjogrenrelated variables (oral tests, clinESSDAI, DAS-ESSDAI, ANA, and cryoglobulins). The multivariate competing risks CPH model adjusted for these variables and the epidemiological features showed that oral tests (abnormal vs normal results: HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.87 ), DAS-ESSDAI (high vs no high: HR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.22-1.96 ) and cryoglobulins (positive vs negative: HR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16-2) were independent predictors of SjS-related death.Interpretation The key mortality risk factors at the time of SjS diagnosis were positive cryoglobulins and a high systemic activity scored using the ESSDAI, conferring a 2-times increased risk of all-cause and SjS-related death. ESSDAI measurement and cryoglobulin testing should be considered mandatory when an individual is diagnosed with SjS.Funding Novartis.Copyright & COPY; 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566082
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