Objectives: To analyse how the key components at the time of diagnosis of the Sjögren's phenotype (epidemiological profile, sicca symptoms, and systemic disease) can be influenced by the potential exposure to climate-related natural hazards. Methods: For the present study, the following variables were selected for harmonisation and refinement: age, sex, country, fulfilment of 2002/2016 criteria items, dry eyes, dry mouth, and overall ESSDAI score. Climate-related hazards per country were defined according to the OECD and included seven climate-related hazard types: extreme temperature, extreme precipitation, drought, wildfire, wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding. Climatic variables were defined as dichotomous variables according to whether each country is ranked among the ten countries with the most significant exposure. Results: After applying data-cleaning techniques and excluding people from countries not included in the OECD climate rankings, the database study analysed 16,042 patients from 23 countries. The disease was diagnosed between 1 and 3 years earlier in people living in countries included among the top 10 worst exposed to extreme precipitation, wildfire, wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding. A lower frequency of dry eyes was observed in people living in countries exposed to wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding, with a level of statistical association being classified as strong (p<0.0001 for the three variables). The frequency of dry mouth was significantly lower in people living in countries exposed to river flooding (p<0.0001) and coastal flooding (p<0.0001). People living in countries included in the worse climate scenarios for extreme temperature (p<0.0001) and river flooding (p<0.0001) showed a higher mean ESSDAI score in comparison with people living in no-risk countries. In contrast, those living in countries exposed to worse climate scenarios for wind threats (p<0.0001) and coastal flooding (p<0.0001) showed a lower mean ESSDAI score in comparison with people living in no-risk countries. Conclusions: Local exposure to extreme climate-related hazards plays a role in modulating the presentation of Sjögren across countries concerning the age at which the disease is diagnosed, the frequency of dryness, and the degree of systemic activity.

Influence of exposure to climate-related hazards in the phenotypic expression of primary Sjögren's syndrome

Bartoloni, Elena
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023

Abstract

Objectives: To analyse how the key components at the time of diagnosis of the Sjögren's phenotype (epidemiological profile, sicca symptoms, and systemic disease) can be influenced by the potential exposure to climate-related natural hazards. Methods: For the present study, the following variables were selected for harmonisation and refinement: age, sex, country, fulfilment of 2002/2016 criteria items, dry eyes, dry mouth, and overall ESSDAI score. Climate-related hazards per country were defined according to the OECD and included seven climate-related hazard types: extreme temperature, extreme precipitation, drought, wildfire, wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding. Climatic variables were defined as dichotomous variables according to whether each country is ranked among the ten countries with the most significant exposure. Results: After applying data-cleaning techniques and excluding people from countries not included in the OECD climate rankings, the database study analysed 16,042 patients from 23 countries. The disease was diagnosed between 1 and 3 years earlier in people living in countries included among the top 10 worst exposed to extreme precipitation, wildfire, wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding. A lower frequency of dry eyes was observed in people living in countries exposed to wind threats, river flooding, and coastal flooding, with a level of statistical association being classified as strong (p<0.0001 for the three variables). The frequency of dry mouth was significantly lower in people living in countries exposed to river flooding (p<0.0001) and coastal flooding (p<0.0001). People living in countries included in the worse climate scenarios for extreme temperature (p<0.0001) and river flooding (p<0.0001) showed a higher mean ESSDAI score in comparison with people living in no-risk countries. In contrast, those living in countries exposed to worse climate scenarios for wind threats (p<0.0001) and coastal flooding (p<0.0001) showed a lower mean ESSDAI score in comparison with people living in no-risk countries. Conclusions: Local exposure to extreme climate-related hazards plays a role in modulating the presentation of Sjögren across countries concerning the age at which the disease is diagnosed, the frequency of dryness, and the degree of systemic activity.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566104
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