Background: This study aims to investigate the activity of the remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to report a case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cured with this combination. Methods: A Vero E6 cell-based infection assay was used to investigate the in vitro activity of the remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination. The SARS-CoV-2 strains tested were 20A.EU1, BA.1 and BA.5. After incubation, a viability assay was performed. The supernatants were collected and used for viral titration. The Highest Single Agent (HSA) reference model was calculated. An HSA score >10 is considered synergic. Results: Remdesivir and nirmatrelvir showed synergistic activity at 48 and 72 h, with an HSA score of 52.8 and 28.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). These data were confirmed by performing supernatant titration and against the omicron variants: the combination reduced the viral titer better than the more active compound alone. An immunocompromised patient with prolonged and critical COVID-19 was successfully treated with remdesivir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, tixagevimab/cilgavimab and dexamethasone, with an excellent clinical–radiological response. However, she required further off-label prolonged therapy with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir until she tested negative. Conclusions: Remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination has synergic activity in vitro. This combination may have a role in immunosuppressed patients with severe COVID-19 and prolonged viral shedding.

Synergistic Activity of Remdesivir–Nirmatrelvir Combination on a SARS-CoV-2 In Vitro Model and a Case Report

Gidari A.;Sabbatini S.;Schiaroli E.;Bastianelli S.;Pierucci S.;Capogrossi L.;Pasticci M. B.;Francisci D.
2023

Abstract

Background: This study aims to investigate the activity of the remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to report a case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cured with this combination. Methods: A Vero E6 cell-based infection assay was used to investigate the in vitro activity of the remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination. The SARS-CoV-2 strains tested were 20A.EU1, BA.1 and BA.5. After incubation, a viability assay was performed. The supernatants were collected and used for viral titration. The Highest Single Agent (HSA) reference model was calculated. An HSA score >10 is considered synergic. Results: Remdesivir and nirmatrelvir showed synergistic activity at 48 and 72 h, with an HSA score of 52.8 and 28.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). These data were confirmed by performing supernatant titration and against the omicron variants: the combination reduced the viral titer better than the more active compound alone. An immunocompromised patient with prolonged and critical COVID-19 was successfully treated with remdesivir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, tixagevimab/cilgavimab and dexamethasone, with an excellent clinical–radiological response. However, she required further off-label prolonged therapy with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir until she tested negative. Conclusions: Remdesivir–nirmatrelvir combination has synergic activity in vitro. This combination may have a role in immunosuppressed patients with severe COVID-19 and prolonged viral shedding.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566267
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