Maintenance of plasma glucose (PG) homeostasis is due to a complex network system. Even a minor fall in PG activates multiple neuroendocrine actions promoting hormonal, metabolic and behavioral responses, which prevent and ultimately recover hypoglycemia, primarily neuroglycopenia. Among these responses, gastric emptying (GE) plays an important role by coordinated mechanisms which regulate transit and absorption of nutrients through the small intestine. A bidirectional relationship between GE and glycemia has been established: GE may explain the up to 30-40 % variance in glycemic response following a carbohydrate-rich meal. In addition, acute and chronic hyperglycemia induce deceleration of GE after meals. Hypoglycemia accelerates GE, but its role in counterregulation has been poorly investigated. The role of GE as a counterregulatory mechanism has been confirmed in pathophysiological conditions, such as gastroparesis or following recurrent hypoglycemia. Therefore, it could represent an "ancestral" mechanism, highly conservative and effective in all individuals, conditions and clinical contexts. Recent guidelines recommend GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) either as the first injectable therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus or in combination with insulin. Considering the potential impact on GE, it would be important to study subjects on GLP-1 RAs during hypoglycemia, to establish whether a possible deceleration of GE impairs glucose counterregulation.

The role of gastric emptying in glucose homeostasis and defense against hypoglycemia: Innocent bystander or partner in crime?

De Fano, Michelantonio;Porcellati, Francesca
;
Fanelli, Carmine G;Corio, Sofia;Mazzieri, Alessio;Lucidi, Paola;Bolli, Geremia B;Bassotti, Gabrio
2023

Abstract

Maintenance of plasma glucose (PG) homeostasis is due to a complex network system. Even a minor fall in PG activates multiple neuroendocrine actions promoting hormonal, metabolic and behavioral responses, which prevent and ultimately recover hypoglycemia, primarily neuroglycopenia. Among these responses, gastric emptying (GE) plays an important role by coordinated mechanisms which regulate transit and absorption of nutrients through the small intestine. A bidirectional relationship between GE and glycemia has been established: GE may explain the up to 30-40 % variance in glycemic response following a carbohydrate-rich meal. In addition, acute and chronic hyperglycemia induce deceleration of GE after meals. Hypoglycemia accelerates GE, but its role in counterregulation has been poorly investigated. The role of GE as a counterregulatory mechanism has been confirmed in pathophysiological conditions, such as gastroparesis or following recurrent hypoglycemia. Therefore, it could represent an "ancestral" mechanism, highly conservative and effective in all individuals, conditions and clinical contexts. Recent guidelines recommend GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) either as the first injectable therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus or in combination with insulin. Considering the potential impact on GE, it would be important to study subjects on GLP-1 RAs during hypoglycemia, to establish whether a possible deceleration of GE impairs glucose counterregulation.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11391/1566360
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